Voting systems

PUBLISHED : Sunday, 12 September, 2004, 12:00am
UPDATED : Sunday, 12 September, 2004, 12:00am

Geographical constituencies


Voting is by the list system, whereby voters do not choose candidates individually but choose from lists of candidates who have grouped themselves together and ranked themselves in order of priority. Candidates are elected individually in order of vote share for each list:


Suppose there are three lists, each with two candidates, contesting three seats - six candidates in all. About 300,000 votes are cast. List A received 145,000, List B 125,000 and List C 30,000.


The threshold for getting elected is 100,000, which is obtained by the total number of votes (300,000) divided by the number of seats (three).


In the first round of seat allocations, the first candidate in each list which gets 100,000 or more votes will be elected, i.e. the first candidate in List A and B.


In the second round of seat allocations, the votes for the candidates already elected are deducted, with 45,000 left in A, 25,000 in B and 30,000 in C. The remaining seat will go to the second candidate of List A, because it has the largest number of remaining votes.


This is called the largest remainder formula.


Consider in the above case, if A received 145,000, List B 100,000 and List C 55,000, in the first round of seat allocation, A and B will each have the first candidate elected.


In the second round, 45,000 votes are left in A, 0 in B and 55,000 in C. The remaining seat would then go to C, because its remainder is the largest.


Functional constituencies


Voting is by the first-past-the- post system in the sectors that are left to be contested this year. Electors are representatives of recognised unions, co-operatives and associations in the sector.