A history riddled with conflicts

PUBLISHED : Tuesday, 16 August, 2005, 12:00am
UPDATED : Tuesday, 16 August, 2005, 12:00am

1894 China and Japan intervene in Korea after a peasant uprising, sparking first Sino-Japanese war

1895 Japan wins war and imposes Treaty of Shimonoseki, which forces China out of Korea and cedes Taiwan to Japan

1905 After Japan wins 11/2-year Russo-Japanese war, it gains Russian lease on Liaodong Peninsula and the South Manchurian Railway line between Port Arthur (Lushun in Dalian ) and Mukden (Shenyang )

1915 Japan's '21 Demands' call on China to accede to Japanese control over Manchuria and former German concessions in the Shandong peninsula

1919 Treaty of Versailles gives Japan former German concessions in China

1931 Japan's Kwantung Army blows up a section of the South Manchurian Railroad in Mukden in the so-called Manchurian Incident and blames Chinese dissidents, providing an excuse for the Japanese annexation of Manchuria

1932 Japan sends troops to Shanghai to 'protect' Japanese residents after anti-Japanese protests. Japanese navy bombs the city. Japan establishes puppet state of Manchukuo in Manchuria with former Chinese emperor Pu Yi as the head of state

1933 Kwantung Army moves into Inner Mongolia

1937 Anti-Japanese war starts with Marco Polo Bridge Incident. Claiming a soldier was missing, Japanese demand right to search Wanping, near Beijing. Chinese garrison refuses request and town is bombarded by Japanese and occupied on morning of July 8. Japanese occupy Shanghai in October and Nanking (Nanjing ) in December. About 300,000 Chinese, mostly civilians and prisoners of war, die in six-week Nanking Massacre following fall of city

1938 Nationalist government forces score first major victory in March, wiping out about 10,000 Japanese troops in Battle of Taierzhuang, a frontier garrison northeast of Xuzhou

1939 About 100,000 Japanese troops fail to take city in 1st Battle of Changsha

1940 Red Army under Peng Dehuai destroys about 950km of railways in Hebei and Shanxi in Hundred Regiments Offensive

1941 More than 120,000 Japanese troops attempt to take city in 2nd Battle of Changsha. Japanese invade Hong Kong in December

1942 Japanese fail to take city in 3rd Battle of Changsha

1944 360,000 Japanese troops take Changsha after 47 days of fighting in 4th Battle of Changsha

1945 China, the United States and Britain urge Japanese surrender in Potsdam Proclamation in July. Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in early August. Emperor Hirohito announces end of hostilities on August 15 but words such as 'surrender' and 'defeat' are not mentioned. Japan surrenders in China theatre in Nanking on September 9, following surrender to Allies on September 2

1972 Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka visits China in September. Tokyo and Beijing establish diplomatic relations

1992 Emperor Akihito becomes the first Japanese monarch to visit China, says he 'deplored' its sufferings brought by Japan

1995 Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama makes Japan's most forthright and widely recognised apology for starting war

1998 In November, President Jiang Zemin becomes first Chinese head of state to visit Japan

2001 Newly-elected Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi visits Tokyo's Yasukuni Shrine, where war criminals are honoured along with Japan's war dead

2005 Anti-Japan protests in China by people outraged by Tokyo's approval of a new history textbook which critics say glosses over Japan's wartime role in China. In April, Mr Koizumi apologises for 'colonial rule' and 'aggression' at a summit of Asian and African leaders in Indonesia. Those present include President Hu Jintao