Fed keeps US rates flat but expects to cut balance sheet soon
The Federal Reserve kept interest rates unchanged on Wednesday and said it expected to start winding down its massive holdings of bonds “relatively soon” in a sign of confidence in the US economy.
The US central bank kept its benchmark lending rate in a target range of 1.00 per cent to 1.25 per cent and said it was continuing the slow path of monetary tightening that has lifted rates by a percentage point since 2015.
In a statement following a two-day policy meeting, the Fed’s rate-setting committee indicated the economy was growing moderately and job gains had been solid. But it noted that both overall inflation and a measure of underlying price gains had declined and said it would “carefully monitor” price trends.
“The committee expects to begin implementing its balance sheet normalisation programme relatively soon,” the Fed said, adding that it would follow a plan outlined in June.
After pushing rates nearly to zero to fight the 2007-2009 financial crisis and recession, the Fed pumped over US$3 trillion into the economy in a bond-buying spree to further reduce rates. Its balance sheet has grown to US$4.5 trillion.
Unwinding the balance sheet will mark the end of a controversial tool that drew criticism from Republican lawmakers in Congress. While Fed researchers have concluded the bond buying only modestly boosted the economy, Fed Chair Janet Yellen has said the central bank could use asset purchases again if the economy fell into a deep rut.
Steady job creation in the economy has pushed the US unemployment rate to 4.3 per cent, near a 16-year low. Fed policymakers, however, have said labour market strength could eventually push inflation too high.
The Fed had previously signalled it would begin this year to trim its holdings of US Treasury securities and government-backed mortgage debt. Economists polled by Reuters expect that announcement will come in September.
At the same time, a slowdown in inflation this year has caused jitters among some Fed officials who are already concerned that inflation has been below the central bank’s 2 per cent target for five years.
The Fed’s preferred measure of underlying inflation dropped to 1.4 per cent in May. It was 1.8 per cent in February.
No Fed policymakers dissented in Wednesday’s decision.