• Fri
  • Sep 19, 2014
  • Updated: 11:07am
CommentInsight & Opinion

Should race be a factor in US university admissions process?

Kent Ewing says though Asian Americans have benefited greatly from California universities' race-blind admissions, there are good reasons to reconsider the law to level the playing field

PUBLISHED : Friday, 09 May, 2014, 6:05pm
UPDATED : Saturday, 10 May, 2014, 5:12am

Since 13 British colonies in America became an independent nation 238 years ago, no race has been barred by law from entering the United States - except, that is, the Chinese, declared personae non gratae by the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. The act was finally repealed in 1943 as the US found itself allied with China in its war against Japan.

But now, 71 years after that ignominious chapter of US history came to a close, Chinese Americans, as well as other Asians in the US, claim they are once again threatened with exclusion, this time from some of the country's best universities.

Appropriately, this latest battle is playing out in the state of California, where the story of Chinese migrants seeking success in America began with the gold rush of the 1850s and which in 1996 became the first US state to prohibit consideration of race as a factor in university admissions.

This 1996 decision opened the floodgates to a multitude of Asian American applicants who, under the new race-blind regimen, were often more academically qualified than other applicants and thus secured more places at state universities, arguably the best publicly funded universities in the nation.

Today, although Asians - a racial designation in the US that includes Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Indians, Filipinos and others - comprise 14 per cent of California's population, they now account for 36 per cent of its freshman (or first-year) offers for admission to its university system. On some campuses - usually the better ones, such as University of California San Diego and UC Irvine - Asian American students make up more than 45 per cent of the freshman class.

From an Asian perspective, then, these acceptance figures are a tremendous success story and amount to a powerful testimony that hard work pays off and high achievement is rewarded in American life; indeed, for some, it is a source of racial pride that has come to be part of the fabric of what could be called the Asian American dream.

The other races in the multicultural American melting pot don't necessarily see it that way, however. In California, they, too, want those coveted university places - and they want to reverse the 1996 prohibition in order to get them.

They have a point: there are many racial narratives in America's richly complex history, and those narratives have often come into ugly conflict. The country is at its best when it embraces its diversity and tries to reconcile its different peoples and traditions.

And that is exactly what its great universities have been doing since the civil rights triumphs of the 1960s - and some of them well before that - and race has all along been a necessary and important consideration in that effort. To argue now that times have changed and a once-skewed American playing field has been levelled is simply disingenuous.

Yes, the US has a two-term black president in Barack Obama, but those were not race-blind elections. In Obama's rare case, it turns out his ancestry and his powerful personal narrative helped him more than they hurt him.

Outside the rarefied air of the White House, many African Americans continue to struggle to overcome a history of slavery and the worst forms of discrimination. Their playing field is hardly level.

Race has always been a vexing aspect of American life - and probably always will be. For its universities to pretend otherwise is an act of betrayal - yes, one that benefits Asian Americans, but a betrayal nonetheless.

And yet this disturbing pretence has become a trend. The US Supreme Court just last month upheld Michigan's ban on affirmative action - the system of "positive discrimination" implemented in the 1960s to compensate minorities, particularly African Americans, who were victims of historical discrimination - effectively supporting similar measures in seven other states.

In California, however, Senator Ed Hernandez - concerned that his fellow Latinos (as well as other ethnic groups) are poorly represented in its university classrooms - authored a bill that would turn back the clock, reinstating affirmative action and thus once again making race a determining factor for admission to any UC institution.

California's Asian community has cried foul, mounting a passionate campaign that prompted Hernandez to withdraw his bill before it could be debated.

That's unfortunate. It's a debate that California - and a nation that still fails to offer a level playing field - should continue to have.

Kent Ewing is an American teacher and writer based in Hong Kong. He can be reached at kewing56@gmail.com. Follow him on Twitter: @KentEwing1

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This article is now closed to comments

Sifu_628
Asian Americans work incessantly to achieve in academics and the arts. We are under represented in athletics and government with far less than a 14% participation rate. Other than a few known imports: Yao Ming from China, Japanese baseball players and Polynesian football players, we have no Asians active across the U.S.$2Trillions+ sport market. To be fair, let's take affirmative action to organized sports across all levels of competition - from little league to the major league. I for one would have liked to have competed against MJ, Bird and Jordan at their prime, though not possessing a comparable level of skills.
mercedes2233
SCMP, why are you posting an article on US universities admissions process? The fact that it refers to Chinese and Asians makes us excited, but otherwise this is hardly a matter for HKers. This is probably as relevant as the fishing licenses of Alaska which will be on the agenda next?
clc2
The Asians are the only ones doing their homework. Let them in in the proportions that they deserve.
Remember that the affirmative action programs being debated are those at the top tier universities. For most of the rest, any high school graduate having a pulse can be admitted and, if he or she works hard (at academics) be admitted to grad school.
johndoe
How about they go to schools in Asia instead if they are so good.
blue
"Are you saying that the Latinos who harvest the crops that we buy in Park n Shop aren't working hard? For shame. "

Look at you stereotyping all latinos as doing unskilled menial labour. Besides, that type of work doesn't qualify you for university.

Nobody is entitled to a university education. If your academic performance isn't as good as others, then sorry, you're not going to university. Asians had it just as hard as Latinos, and they overcame those odds through good academic performance in school.
johnsonwkchoi
Kent is WRONG. We are fighting hard against SCA-5 in California. Asian including Chinese work very hard to gain admission into Universities in California. Race based admission will be similar to those in Malaysia - i.e. medical school admission, Chinese need to score 95%+ to gain admission while the local only need to score 50%+ to gain admission. Therefore in Malaysia, who do you want to treat your heart problems. Kent - next time when you have a serious medical problem, give it a try to obtain medical treatment in Malaysia, be sure to pick a non-Chinese Doctor.
oregon222
That is shocking. No doubt MH370 and the subsequent fallout was contributed by the incompetenecy of officials who were admitted through race, not ability. 50% - WOW. If you are Chinese born in Malaysia, why aren't you protesting? Or do the police just shoot/imprison you?
536d86de-3898-4198-b225-52b90a3209cb
Sjfore stop click "like" on your own comment. Pay up your reparations and colonization bills, then rid yourself of white privilege, and we can talk.
sjfore
Sigh....I'm arguing AGAINST white privilege....
oregon222
how, by telling blacks and latinos that the only way to beat them is if we moved the goalposts closer for them, but not for whites and asians? How condescending.
The best way to fight white privilege is to ELIMINATE privilege - that means discrimination - positive or negative. That means EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY. If there is no equality of outcome, then blame the person, not the system.
If a black or latino who met the criteria but was put off or encouraged not to go because of their race (much like Lin was in NBA basketball), that needs to be tackled.

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