The Catholic Church is the oldest institution in the western world, and with more than one billion members worldwide, it is the largest Christian church. Its history spans almost 2,000 years and is rooted in the Church's Canon of Scripture and Tradition. At the head of the church is the Pope, who Catholics believe is the successor to Saint Peter whom Christ appointed as the first head of His church. The Pope, according to the religion's doctrine, can speak infallibly on matters of faith and morals. The Catholic Church practises closed communion and only baptised members of the church are permitted to receive the Eucharist, or Holy Communion.
Pope calls on China's new leaders to respect religions
Pope Benedict XVI called on China’s new leaders to “esteem the contributions of the religions” during his traditional Christmas message.
Speaking from the balcony of Saint Peter’s Basilica in a message watched by millions around the world, the pontiff said on Tuesday that he hoped the new leaders would “help build a fraternal society for that noble people and of the whole world”.
China and the Vatican severed diplomatic ties in 1951 after the latter recognised the Nationalist Chinese government in Taipei, a rival to the communist regime in Beijing.
Although Beijing and the Vatican have improved relations in recent years as China’s Catholic population has grown, they remain at odds over which side has the authority to ordain priests. About 5.7 million Chinese belong to the state-run Catholic church, according to official figures. Independent estimates say 12 million Chinese Catholics worship in unauthorised churches and are loyal to the pope.
The German pope also called for an “end to the bloodshed” and “a political solution” in conflict-wracked Syria.
“There is hope in the world ... even at the most difficult times and in the most difficult situations,” he said, praying that “peace spring up for the people of Syria, deeply wounded and divided by a conflict which does not spare even the defenceless and reaps innocent victims”.
He added: “Once again I appeal for an end to the bloodshed, easier access for the relief of refugees and the displaced, and dialogue in the pursuit of a political solution to the conflict.”
More than 44,000 people have been killed in Syria since the outbreak in March last year of an anti-regime revolt that became a bloody insurgency after a brutal crackdown, a rights group said last week.
The pope’s wide-ranging Urbi et Orbi (To the City and the World) message, heard by some 40,000 pilgrims in Saint Peter’s Square, also pointed to hotspots across Africa, and as usual called for peace in the Middle East.
The pope prayed for “Israelis and Palestinians [to be granted the] courage to end long years of conflict and division, and to embark resolutely on the path of negotiation”.
Turning to Africa, he lamented “savage acts of terrorism” that frequently target Christian churches in Nigeria.
The 85-year-old pontiff prayed for “concord in Nigeria, where savage acts of terrorism continue to reap victims, particularly among Christians”.
The Islamist extremist group Boko Haram has often targeted churches in its bloody insurgency, as well as police and other symbols of the establishment in Nigeria.
Violence linked to the insurgency is believed to have left some 3,000 people dead since 2009, including killings by the security forces.
The pope also prayed for “help and comfort to the refugees from the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo”, where a rebel campaign caused tens of thousands to flee their homes, and peace in Kenya, “where brutal attacks have struck the civilian population and places of worship”.
He also urged peace in Mali, where Islamist insurgents have occupied large swathes of the desert north since a March coup.