• Sun
  • Dec 21, 2014
  • Updated: 8:02am

Chinese scientists urged to develop new thorium nuclear reactors by 2024

PUBLISHED : Tuesday, 18 March, 2014, 11:42pm
UPDATED : Wednesday, 19 March, 2014, 4:50pm

The deadline to develop a new design of nuclear power plant has been brought forward by 15 years as the central government tries to reduce the nation's reliance on smog-producing coal-fired power stations.

A team of scientists in Shanghai had originally been given 25 years to try to develop the world's first nuclear plant using the radioactive element thorium as fuel rather than uranium, but they have now been told they have 10, the researchers said.

"In the past the government was interested in nuclear power because of the energy shortage. Now they are more interested because of smog," said Professor Li Zhong, a scientist working on the project.

Premier Li Keqiang told the national legislature in Beijing on March 5 that the government had declared "war on pollution", and measures to tackle the problem included closing coal-fired power stations. About 70 per cent of China's electricity was produced by coal-fired plants last year, according to government figures. Nuclear power stations generated just over 1 per cent.

The Chinese Academy of Sciences set up an advanced research centre in Shanghai in January with the aim of developing the world's first industrial reactor using thorium molten-salt technology, according to a statement from the academy's Bureau of Major Research and Development Programmes.

All commercial nuclear plants in China, whether in operation or under construction, are designed to use uranium as fuel, but the country has run short of uranium and depends on imports from other countries.

The technology under development in Shanghai involves burning the radioactive element thorium in a salty "soup" to, in theory, release heat many times greater than today's reactors.

Other potential advantages of the technology are that China has large thorium reserves, at least the world's third-largest, according to some experts. The process may also produce less radioactive waste.

Professor Li, director of the project's molten salt chemistry and engineering technology division, said the smog crisis had provided huge impetus for their research.

"The problem of coal has become clear. If the average energy consumption per person doubles, this country will be choked to death by polluted air," he said. "Nuclear power provides the only solution for massive coal replacement and thorium carries much hope."

Researchers working on the project said they were under unprecedented "war-like" pressure to succeed and some of the technical challenges they faced were difficult, if not impossible to solve in such a short period.

They would also probably face opposition from sections of the Chinese public after the nuclear disaster at Fukushima in Japan and also from some senior officials with interests in the coal industry who were unlikely to give their backing to a new form of nuclear energy, they said.

One of the technical difficulties is that the molten salt produces highly corrosive chemicals such as fluoride that could damage the reactor.

The power plant would also have to operate at extremely high temperatures, raising concerns about safety. In addition, researchers have limited knowledge of how to use thorium.

"We are still in the dark about the physical and chemical nature of thorium in many ways," said Li. "There are so many problems to deal with but so little time."

Western countries such as the United States have experimented with thorium reactors but gave up on the technology because of the engineering difficulties.

Analysts have also suggested the US lost interest in thorium as a fuel for reactors because uranium was a more suitable material to produce nuclear weapons.

Interest, however, has been revived in recent years and research projects have been established in several countries, including the United States, France and Japan.

"This is definitely a race," said Li. China "faces fierce competition from overseas and to get there first will not be an easy task", he said.

The thorium reactor is not the only technology China is researching in an attempt to upgrade its nuclear power programme.

These projects are beautiful to scientists, but nightmarish to engineers
Professor Gu Zhongmao

The Hefei Institute of Physical Science in Anhui province finished construction last month of the world's largest experimental platform for an accelerator reactor that burns nuclear fuel with a powerful "particle gun".

An experimental fast reactor is also operating in Beijing, and construction has started of a demonstration plant for a very-high-temperature reactor at Shidao Bay in Shandong province.

Professor Gu Zhongmao, an official at the China Institute of Atomic Energy, said so-called fourth-generation reactors were troubled by technological uncertainties, and to solve the smog issue the central government should approve and start construction of new nuclear power plants using existing technology as soon as possible.

The thorium reactors would need years, if not decades, to overcome the corrosion issue and the stability of accelerator-driven plants was also in doubt, he said.

"These projects are beautiful to scientists, but nightmarish to engineers," he said.

Smog would be reduced noticeably if nuclear power produced 5 to 10 per cent of the nation's electricity, according to Gu. China has about 20 nuclear reactors and is building nearly 30 more.

Its use of nuclear power is tiny compared with countries such as France, which produces about 75 per cent of its electricity from nuclear power plants.

After the Fukushima nuclear disaster three years ago, the central government withheld approval for new nuclear plants.

Part of the resistance came from the public, as many people were worried that nuclear plants would cause more serious contamination than the pollution created by coal-fired stations, Gu said.

Government agencies such as the Ministry of Water Resources also opposed the construction of nuclear plants in land-locked areas over concerns that radioactive waste would worsen river pollution.

"To completely get rid of smog, nuclear power is the only option," according to Gu.

"If we build as many nuclear power stations as there are in France and Japan, we will also enjoy blue skies and clean air like they do."


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This is an incredibly smart, forward thinking project on the part of the Chinese Government & People that will solve a huge number of issues globally. I have to say how overjoyed & impressed I am that this technology will soon become reality courtesy of Chinese scientists & engineers. I wish the American Congress & People were smart enough to realize what a massive game changer this is, and that since we invented the Thorium Fueled Molten Salt Reactor & ran one continuously for 3-4 years at Oak Ridge National Labs in the 1970's, we should be prioritizing the commercialisation of them as well. I can only hope China will sell them to us cheap!!!!!
Overall an an excellent, balanced article. Thank you for this update.
A few misconceptions however:
" the molten salt produces highly corrosive chemicals..." No; the fluoride is the salt. Tweaking additives to the salt as well as the materials within the reactor core can virtually eliminate salt corrosion issues. The physical stresses to overcome are neutronic radiation combined with long-term heat (~700°C) which may eventually weaken the physical containment. New substances are being created & tested to overcome this.
"Western countries... gave up on the technology because of the engineering difficulties." Actually, MSR's (Molten Salt Reactors) were abandoned for political reasons. Funding was eliminated as politicians (Nixon & friends) were hopeful that a fast-breeder in Nixon's home state of California would prove successful and create many jobs both at nuclear plants and at uranium processing factories. After the fast-breeder failed, resurrecting MSR would have made them seem doubly foolish & short-sighted.
"the US lost interest in thorium... to produce nuclear weapons." US civilian nuclear power has never created bombs! However, US civilian reactors have been using Russian military plutonium - and should begin burning US stockpiles soon!
Dr. Weinberg, who championed MSR's in the 1960's, previously helped design & patent the design of reactors still in use today. As a student he also studied global warming (CO2 in the1930's!) & saw nuclear as the solution.
This is the best solution ever to Nuclear Fuel power stations.
Everyone MUST APPLAUD the PRC and Mr Premier here.
Well done.
Just a small issue....there are many other lower rated fuels that can also be used.
It US technology based on the work carried out in 1954.
If China can pull this off, it'll be one of the things that can erase the global image of China "copying" and moving into an "Innovative" reputation.
And it will be one of only two things, that i will be wishing and hoping China will succeed in.
1. China Moon landing project
2. Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors (LFTR)
Both will push mankind technological and exploration frontier !
LFTR technology is not new. It's decades old. The reason it has not been used on a commercial scale is because it does not yield weapons grade uranium and plutonium in an easy way.
Thorium is burning as we speak, in a reactor in Norway. ****www.thorenergy.no/. Partly financed by the Norwegian Government, and partly by industry.
Wrong. The reasons is the long term viability due to the thermo-erosion difficulties of the fuel/coolant containment design & materials.
The lack of motivation and funding, prevented the USA from continuing the research, the fact that LFTR is easier and safer to shut-down is an incredible advantage over the common gen.3 Light Water Reactors.
The USA has plenty of reactors to create depleted uranium and weapon grade plutonium, after all, its not like they are using them so fast or expiring (decay half life measured in tens of decades!!)....that they need to replace them!!
I read that the corrosive issues in the MSR @ Oak Ridge Labs was solved by using Hastelloy-N in the Reactor design?
This was inevitable given the state of air pollution in China, but good to see it is happening.
I'd like to suggest that someone at SCMP consider posting a "fair" comparison that illustrates how much Energy China is N☢T going to be generating by choosing to invest in Thorium R&D for the next 10 years.
Hopefully they would factor in that all this new solar generation would have an average life span of 35 years and that it could be both manufactured and deployed very quickly, especially if it included a combination of Residential, Commercial and Large-Scale generation. Note: Not mentioned in the above comparison would be the creation of a huge number of good jobs which China's workers are now desperate for and the required improvements to their Grid which again would be most helpful, especially in rural areas where there is no Grid.
Since the odds for discovering a "game changing" Thorium solution (or any other Nuclear "Clean & Risk-Free" solution for that matter) within 10 years are 50-50, (either they will or they will not), what they are risking is worth quantifying, since it can be directly related to "Lost Energy Generation".
The scientific method requires a complete analysis of all factors and "Lost Energy Generation" is one that cannot be discounted in any discussion about the feasibility of using Thorium Power Plants (TPP), especially since the time span is 30 years!
Thank You in advance for considering this suggestion and also for allowing brand new SCMP members to post on your site.
China to epoch the U.S.A. in science even as the Pan Eurasian Empire forms its basic economic alliances before our very eyes. Corporate drive is exhausted in the U.S.A. as the Chinese systems move ahead. Even short on bodies to man its military, short on fuel to run it, U.S.A. is also "lost in the fifties in nuclear prowess, and hardly can afford to take up the Thorium challenges. Pebble Bed,
Gas reactors up and running in China now, require no water coolant - and the Thorium LFTR styled technologies do not use water as a coolant ether. California could certainly use this kind of power during their drought? But: America's sunk money actually prevents this?
1. Make all coal burning power plants install filters.
2. Since more and more factories are closing down due to weak exports and over capacity one just have to wonder maybe its time to close down more old fashion power plants.
3. All cars should need to be installed with a catalytic converters if its too expensive for the poorer areas well subsidies them, did them with white goods to farmers home, why not with catalytic converters cars?


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