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  • Oct 30, 2014
  • Updated: 6:08am
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DEFENCE

Shanghai to San Francisco in 100 minutes by Chinese supersonic submarine

Chinese eye 'supercavitation' technology as future of underwater travel

PUBLISHED : Sunday, 24 August, 2014, 5:22am
UPDATED : Sunday, 24 August, 2014, 5:22am
 

China has moved a step closer to creating a supersonic submarine that could travel from Shanghai to San Francisco in less than two hours.

New technology developed by a team of scientists at Harbin Institute of Technology's Complex Flow and Heat Transfer Lab has made it easier for a submarine, or torpedo, to travel at extremely high speeds underwater.

Li Fengchen, professor of fluid machinery and engineering, said the team's innovative approach meant they could now create the complicated air "bubble" required for rapid underwater travel. "We are very excited by its potential," he said.

Water produces more friction, or drag, on an object than air, which means conventional submarines cannot travel as fast as an aircraft.

However, during the cold war, the Soviet military developed a technology called supercavitation, which involves enveloping a submerged vessel inside an air bubble to avoid problems caused by water drag.

A Soviet supercavitation torpedo called Shakval was able to reach a speed of 370km/h or more - much faster than any other conventional torpedoes.

In theory, a supercavitating vessel could reach the speed of sound underwater, or about 5,800km/h, which would reduce the journey time for a transatlantic underwater cruise to less than an hour, and for a transpacific journey to about 100 minutes, according to a report by California Institute of Technology in 2001.

However, supercavitation technology has faced two major problems. First, the submerged vessel has needed to be launched at high speeds, approaching 100km/h, to generate and maintain the air bubble.

Second, it is extremely difficult - if not impossible - to steer the vessel using conventional mechanisms, such as a rudder, which are inside the bubble without any direct contact with water.

As a result, its application has been limited to unmanned vessels, such as torpedoes, but nearly all of these torpedoes were fired in a straight line because they had limited ability to turn.

Li said the team of Chinese scientists had found an innovative means of addressing both problems.

Once in the water, the team's supercavitation vessel would constantly "shower" a special liquid membrane on its own surface. Although this membrane would be worn off by water, in the meantime it could significantly reduce the water drag on the vessel at low speed.

After its speed had reached 75km/h or more the vessel would enter the supercavitation state. The man-made liquid membrane on the vessel surface could help with steering because, with precise control, different levels of friction could be created on different parts of the vessel.

"Our method is different from any other approach, such as vector propulsion," or thrust created by an engine, Li said. "By combining liquid-membrane technology with supercavitation, we can significantly reduce the launch challenges and make cruising control easier."

However, Li said many problems still needed to be solved before supersonic submarine travel became feasible. Besides the control issue, a powerful underwater rocket engine still had to be developed to give the vessel a longer range. The effective range of the Russian supercavitation torpedoes, for example, was only between 11 km and 15 km.

Li said the supercavitation technology was not limited only to military use. In future, it could benefit civilian underwater transport, or water sports such as swimming.

"If a swimsuit can create and hold many tiny bubbles in water, it can significantly reduce the water drag; swimming in water could be as effortless as flying in the sky," he said.

Besides Russia, countries such as Germany, Iran and the United States have been developing vessels or weapons using supercavitation technology.

Professor Wang Guoyu, the head of the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Beijing Institute of Technology who is leading another state-funded research project on supercavitation, said the global research community had been troubled for decades by the lack of innovative ideas to address the huge scientific and engineering challenges.

"The size of the bubble is difficult to control, and the vessel is almost impossible to steer," he said. While cruising at high speed during supercavitation, a fin could be snapped off if it touched the water because of the liquid's far greater density.

Despite many scientists worldwide working on similar projects, the latest progress remains unclear because they are regarded as military secrets.

Wang, a member of the water armament committee of the China Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, said even he had been kept in the dark about recent supercavitation developments in China.

"The primary drive still comes from the military, so most research projects are shrouded in secrecy," he said.

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This article is now closed to comments

nathan.barton.790
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ohyeahar
By the time China completes this fantastic sub, do their first trial run, and surfaces on the US west coast, they’ll look around and see hover cars and teleportation chambers.
People would look at them and say “You guys came in THAT thing?”
54001680-f0c8-4204-a1d9-08e70a3209ca
we should call this DDC(daydream china) project ;)
53fef3ea-45e0-42ca-9037-52b80a3209cb
Finally the Chinese can invent something for themselves instead of copying from the others. they have destroyed the land, the air and now they want to destroy the sea as well
serpiente
Too much daydreaming is not healthy, but can be useful for sci fi movies
53fd4acb-4a48-4bd8-8130-74350a320969
Anyone stop to think of efficiency on this? Russian шквал (Shkval) is very efficient torpedo that after over 50 years of development on supercavitation weighs 2700kg but uses 2000kg propellant and only goes 15km. Think about how much fuel you would need to propel even a single person with oxygen, guidance, let alone weaponry, over 10,500km! This is one of those very simple maths questions that the very arrogant posters on here seem to have overlooked. It doesn't matter what colour skin is or what country is 'ascending' or 'descending' - only an idiot with enormous resources and very little common sense would try to field such a weapons system. Even an ICBM makes far more sense. Besides, sensors in sea floor fielded by Russia/USA would pick this monster up long before it ever came close to opposing shore so surprise is out. Makes far far more sense to simply work on stealthy normal nuclear sub.This sounds like maybe a cool-sounding but very very impractical dream.
Sticks Evans
Yeah kill some more dolphins. Great idea 2 superpowers destroying the ocean at once.
michaelhctam@gmail.com
Yes, let's kill more cows, pigs and chickens so we can be normal like you!
53fce161-4c08-46fb-86cf-52bc0a3209cb
Dear China,
been there done that, already built prototype.
Sincerely, U.S.A.
53fcb366-238c-4a26-9868-52b50a3209cb
any one small bull ****

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