Monday, July 1
Today is Monday, July 1, the 182nd day of 2013. There are 183 days left in the year.
Highlights in history on this date:
1847 - The U.S. Post Office issues the first adhesive-backed stamps.
1867 - The provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario officially become the Dominion of Canada. As a dominion, Canada still owed its allegiance to the British crown and didn't receive total independence until 1982.
1910 - South Africa becomes a dominion of British Empire, after the British defeat the Dutch settlers in the Boer War (1899-1902). The resulting Union of South Africa operated under apartheid until the 1990s when black majority rule was established.
1916 - The British army attacks German lines at the start the First Battle of the Somme during World War I, sustaining their heaviest casualties ever in one day: 20,000 dead.
1921 - Revolutionaries Mao Zedong and Chen Duxiu, who turned to Marxism after the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution victory in Russia, secretly meet in Shanghai and establish the Communist Party of China.
1926 - British and Portuguese reach agreement on boundary between what is now Angola and Namibia.
1961 - Algerians vote overwhelmingly for independence from France.
1962 - Rwanda and Burundi gain their independence from Belgium.
1963 - The U.S. Post Office inaugurates the postal zip-code system.
1966 - France withdraws all its armed forces from integrated military command of NATO, but remains a member of the organization.
1967 - China's Communist Party proclaims overthrow of President Liu Shai Chi.
1968 - Britain, Soviet Union, United States and 58 non-nuclear nations sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, to curb the spread of nuclear weapons.
1969 - Denmark becomes the first country in the world to allow sale and production of pornography after adult censorship is lifted.
1974 - President Juan Peron of Argentina dies during third term in office.
1985 - Three explosions hit Rome, Madrid and Athens killing one and injuring 39, a day after the last 39 hostages from a hijacked TWA jet in Lebanon were released.
1990 - Economies and social welfare systems of East and West Germany are officially merged.
1991 - After the democratic revolutions of 1989 in eastern Europe, the Warsaw Pact is declared "nonexistent" at a final summit meeting in Prague, Czechoslovakia. Deployed Soviet troops are gradually withdrawn from the former satellite countries.
1992 - NATO and former Warsaw Pact countries reach agreement on limiting troop strength.
1994 - PLO leader Yasser Arafat drives from Egypt into Gaza, ending his 27-year roaming exile, returning to Palestinian land with all the trappings of a head of state.
1996 - The world's first voluntary euthanasia law takes effect in Australia's Northern Territory.
1997 - After 156 years as a British colony, Hong Kong awakens to its first day as part of China. Prince Charles and former governor Chris Patten leave aboard the royal yacht Britannia.
1998 - A man claiming to be a Pakistani nuclear scientist says he defected to the United States for fear Pakistan would launch a pre-emptive strike against India. He is later discovered to be lying to gain asylum.
1999 - Queen Elizabeth II opens Scotland's first Parliament in nearly 300 years. An 18th century Scottish ballad by poet Robert Burns is sung instead of the traditional British anthem, "God Save The Queen."
2000 - After 38 years and mounting pressure from an NAACP boycott, South Carolina removes the Confederate flag from atop its Statehouse. In a compromise with supporters, another one is raised on Statehouse grounds.
2001- Twenty-seven slashed bodies are found in Aceh, Indonesia, where more than 870 people have been killed in a separatist war by the Free Aceh Movement or GAM rebels. GAM has been fighting for a free Islamic state since the mid-1970s.
2002 - A Boeing 757 cargo jet crashes mid-air into a Russian passenger airliner over southern Germany. Seventy-one are killed — mostly children from the Russian plane en route to attending a festival in Barcelona.
2003 - Judicial Watch, a Washington-based conservative legal group, says changes demanded by the United States to Belgium's war crime laws to prevent complaints against U.S. President Bush and other U.S. officials shouldn't derail a case against Cuban leader Fidel Castro.
2004 - Saddam Hussein appears in Iraqi court for the first time, scoffing at charges of war crimes and genocide and declaring himself still the president of Iraq.
2005 - A fire paralyzes a water plant near Baghdad, leaving millions of the capital's weary residents with dry taps a day after the mayor threatened to quit because of mounting infrastructure problems.
2006 - Thousands chant slogans and march through Hong Kong's streets in a pro-democracy protest, while a pro-Beijing parade also draws a big crowd to mark the ninth anniversary of the former British colony's return to Chinese rule.
2007 - Hong Kong marks a decade of Chinese rule with a colorful parade and a mass street protest to call for progress on democratic reform.
2008 - France's army chief resigns following a weekend military show in which 16 people were shot and wounded when real bullets were used instead of blanks.
2009 - Iran's embattled opposition leader Mir Hossein Mousavi tells supporters "it's not yet too late" to push for their rights, and he joins a reformist ex-president in condemning the regime for a post-election crackdown both said was tantamount to a coup.
2010 — Two suicide bombers strike a popular Muslim shrine in Pakistan's second largest city, killing 35 people and wounding 175 others in the second major attack in Lahore in a month.
2011 — A defiant Moammar Gadhafi threatens to carry out attacks in Europe against "homes, offices, families," unless NATO halts its campaign of airstrikes against his regime in Libya.
2012 — A pro-democracy heckler interrupts a speech by Chinese President Hu Jintao at the sweaing-in of Hong Kong's new leadewr and tens of thousands march to protest Chinese rule on the 15th anniversary of the Asian financial hub's return to Beijing's control.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, German philosopher and mathematician (1646-1716); George Sand (Armandine Dudevant), French author (1804-1876); Charles Laughton, British-born actor (1899-1965); James Cagney, U.S. actor (1904-1986); Lady Diana Spencer, Princess of Wales (1961-1997); Sydney Pollack, U.S. director (1934-2008); Olivia de Havilland, British actress (1916--); Sir Seretse Khama, first president of Botswana (1921-1980); Twyla Tharp, U.S. dancer/choreographer (1941--); Deborah Harry, U.S. singer (1945--); Liv Tyler, U.S. actress (1977--); Carl Lewis, U.S. Olympic athlete (1961--); Pamela Anderson, U.S. actress (1967--).
Thought For Today:
The past is a foreign country; they do things differently there — L. P. Hartley, British author