30-year-old American Edward Snowden, a contract employee at the National Security Agency, is the whistleblower behind significant revelations that surfaced in June 2013 about the US government's top secret, extensive domestic surveillance programmes. Snowden flew to Hong Kong from Hawaii in May 2013, and supplied confidential US government documents to media outlets including the Guardian.
Facebook reveals requests for data
Social network giant's first report shows that governments in 74 countries sought information on 38,000 users of the site
You can thank former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden for a new report from Facebook on the inquiries it gets from governments around the world for information on its more than 1 billion users.
According to the giant social network, governments in 74 countries sought information on more than 38,000 Facebook users in the first half of 2013. More than half of those requests came from the United States - about 20,000 to 21,000 - and Facebook said it produced some data in response to 80 per cent of those requests.
Facebook said it required governments to meet a "very high legal bar" to receive information.
"We fight many of these requests, pushing back when we find legal deficiencies and narrowing the scope of overly broad or vague requests," Facebook general counsel Colin Stretch said. "When we are required to comply with a particular request, we frequently share only basic user information, such as name."
Facebook said it would publish information on data requests on a regular basis. Google, Twitter and Microsoft have released similar information for years.
The Facebook report is the result of allegations made by Snowden that nearly every major internet company, including Facebook, Google and Microsoft, hands over the personal information of users to national intelligence agencies.
The extent of the US National Security Agency's electronic data collection remains unclear. Facebook's report includes secret requests made under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act and the Patriot Act.
Facebook negotiated with the US government to begin publishing the number of data requests it receives - including national security requests - as long as it does not specify how many of those requests are related to national security. In general, criminal matters are more common than national security matters.
Facebook, along with Google and other companies, is pressing Congress to be allowed to provide greater detail.
"We are happy to see Facebook issue its first global Government Requests Report and join the growing number of internet companies that have recognised how important it is to be transparent about the scope of government demands for user data," said Kevin Bankston, director of the Centre for Democracy and Technology's Free Expression project.
"Sunlight is the best disinfectant, and basic numbers about the scope of surveillance of Facebook users can serve as an important early warning system for detecting abuse or overuse of a government's authority to demand user data," he said.
But Bankston said he was disappointed that Facebook was still barred from disclosing the number of foreign intelligence and national security-related data demands it received from the US government.
"We would strongly prefer that Facebook report specific numbers about the different types of government requests that they receive, and we hope that the Obama administration and Congress will work together to ensure that companies like Facebook can soon engage in meaningful transparency reporting about the full range of government surveillance of internet users," Bankston said.
Facebook faces scrutiny on other fronts: as a key organising tool of activists around the world. Facebook pushed back against requests from governments in Egypt and Turkey, according to the report. Egypt made eight requests for information on 11 users. Facebook did not comply with any of them.
Authorities in Turkey - where Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan called social media "the worst menace to society" - made 96 requests for information on 173 users. Facebook complied in 47 per cent of the cases. Facebook has denied turning over information on protesters of the Turkish government.
In India, authorities made 3,245 requests on 4,144 users, and Facebook complied in 50 per cent of cases. In the United Kingdom, authorities asked for information on 2,337 users, and Facebook complied in 68 per cent of cases.