Nelson Mandela is a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary and politician who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid and fostering racial reconciliation. An African nationalist and democratic socialist, Mandela served as the President of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1991 to 1997..
Scramble for control of Nelson Mandela's financial and moral legacy
Family members, the ANC, the Nelson Mandela Foundation are key players in tussle for anti-aparteid hero's financial and moral legacy
Reuters in Johannesburg
From political posters to bottles of wine and kitchen aprons, the face and name of Nelson Mandela are a potent commercial and political brand in South Africa. Little wonder it's so sought after - and the source of occasional squabbles.
Following his death at the age of 95, the scramble for control of the Mandela legacy - both financial and moral - will involve his family, the ruling African National Congress (ANC), and the Nelson Mandela Foundation he set up to protect his broader message.
At stake is the inheritance that will go to Mandela's more than 30 children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren, some of whom already use the Mandela name and image to market everything from clothing to reality TV.
There are also the Mandela brands and trademarks that help fund the Foundation. And for the ANC, Mandela's reputation as an anti-apartheid hero is worth votes for years to come.
There are no available public figures of Mandela's wealth, making it difficult to put an exact value on his estate, which includes an upscale house in Johannesburg, a modest dwelling in his rural Eastern Cape home province, and royalties from book sales including his autobiography Long Walk to Freedom.
Several South African branding experts have declined to estimate the annual value of Mandela's trademark and brands.
Maintaining control over the copyrights is already a difficult business; protecting the Mandela brand may be even harder now that he is gone.
"The beauty of the Nelson Mandela brand is that it has been lived by him exactly as it has been presented by him. His behaviour is his brand," said Jeremy Sampson, the executive chairman of Interbrand Sampson de Villiers. "In the rush to commercialise it, we run the risk of watering down or destroying the good that the brand stood for purely with the crassness of finance."
Mandela divided the management of his legacy between a series of trusts to handle his finances and the Nelson Mandela Foundation, which serves as custodian of his wider moral legacy.
In total, he set up about two dozen trusts, mostly to pay for the education of his grandchildren and great-grandchildren.
It hasn't all been straight forward. A legal tussle between Mandela's long-time friend, lawyer George Bizos, and two of Mandela's daughters became public this year as the daughters sought to have Bizos and other Mandela associates ousted from companies set up to sell his handprint for use in art and memorabilia.
According to an affidavit filed by Bizos and the others, the two daughters, Makaziwe Mandela and Zenani Dlamini, had been trying to gain control of the main Mandela Trust since 2005 and eventually became trustees without Mandela's knowledge.
Mandela became angry when he found out what the daughters had done, Bizos and the other associates said in the affidavit.
"Mr Mandela was shocked and used a common expression 'Good Lord!' He was most infuriated and wanted to know what had happened."
A portion of the revenue from the Foundation's 46664 clothing line - named after Mandela's prisoner number on Robben Island - and the artworks also goes to pay for family members' education, according to Bizos.
"The trust has adopted the procedure of requiring the applicant for money to furnish an invoice," Bizos said, adding that every request accompanied by proper paperwork has been granted.
But some family members have asked for a lump sum payment of 12 million rand (HK$8.9 million), he added.
Such demands fuel the notion, widely held in South Africa, that some of Mandela's children have exploited their father. Makaziwe, Mandela's eldest daughter, bristles at that.
"This is what we are, in a sense, entitled to, that my father worked for, and he did it with his own hands to create something for the welfare and upkeep of himself and his children," she told the Financial Times in April.
"If everybody wants a little bit of the Madiba magic, why is it so sacrilegious for the rightful owners ... to use the Madiba magic?" she said, referring to her father by his clan name.
The Nelson Mandela Foundation, which runs the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory in Johannesburg, was set up as the official custodian of Brand Mandela. It owns more than a dozen copyrights and trademarks for Mandela, which it uses for fundraising and charitable works.
As well as the "46664" number, its copyrights include the "Nelson Mandela" name, the clan name "Madiba" by which he is widely known, and "Rolihlahla", which was Mandela's given name. Income those brands generate - "46664" runs as a charity that sells wristbands and mobile phone starter packs, for instance - helps pay for the running of the Foundation's Centre of Memory, which is the main research and archive centre for Mandela, and which often spoke on his behalf as his health faded.
Separately, the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund has rights to use the Mandela name for fundraising.
But not everything that uses Mandela's name was sanctioned by him.
There are at least 40 companies officially registered with the South African government that use the Mandela name.
The companies appear to have no link to either Nelson Mandela, any of his relatives or any geographic area that has the Mandela name. The list includes the Gandhi-Mandela Nursing Academy, Mandela Truck Shuttle Services, Mama Mandela Marketing Company, Thanks Mandela Toiletries and Mandela's Shed, a restaurant.
The "Madiba" name has been used by more than 140 registered companies, including Madiba Truck Stop, Madiba Wines, Madiba's Driving School, Madiba Chickens, Madiba Cash and Madiba Bottle Store.
The Foundation may own the website "nelsonmandela.org", but "mandela.org" belongs to a Brazilian, who said he is using it for a personal project, which is a tool for computers.
There are also regularly scams where fake charities use Mandela's name to raise funds. But the Mandela Foundation picks its battles with care, only rarely suing firms that use his name or image. "The brand Nelson Mandela is not like the brand Coca-Cola. It's huge, it's complex, there are many sub-brands within that brand. We implement protections in a relatively small space," said Verne Harris, the director and archivist at the Nelson Mandela Foundation.
Trademark lawyers say there is little to stop family members using the Mandela name. Makaziwe and one of her daughters have launched a "House of Mandela" range of wines, even if Mandela once said he did not want to be associated with alcohol.
Some of his grandchildren have started a line of caps and sweatshirts that feature his image under the brand "Long Walk to Freedom," while two of his US-based granddaughters starred in a reality television show called Being Mandela.
The other group keen to use Mandela's image is the ruling African National Congress.
When President Jacob Zuma visited Mandela at his Johannesburg home in April, some in the Mandela family accused the current president of manipulating a frail old man to shore up his own battered image.
The ANC defended the visit. Mandela "belongs to the ANC first and then to the whole country," ANC spokesman Jackson Mthembu told South Africa's Sunday Times newspaper.