Brutal civil war leaves South Sudan on brink of collapse
Ethnic divisions in South Sudan's civil war heighten its brutality and risks
When not plotting military strategy to seize South Sudan's crucial oil fields, sacked vice-president turned rebel chief Riek Machar spends time reading the economic and political history Why Nations Fail.
Cynics might argue he would do better to simply look around his basic bush camp, where mutinous soldiers and an allied ethnic militia crammed with child soldiers ready themselves to attack government forces, as a brutal four-month-long civil war in which thousands have already been killed intensifies.
"I didn't want to fight any more war again," Machar said in a recent interview at his rebel hideout, saying people had enough of fighting during Sudan's long civil war, in which he was a guerilla commander.
It was that war, which lasted more two decades, that paved the way for South Sudan's independence from the north.
But although less than three years old, the world's youngest nation is spiralling towards collapse. With a ceasefire deal in tatters, the United Nations fear more than one million people are at risk of famine, and analysts warn the war is dragging in neighbouring countries.
Over one million people have fled their homes, with violence worsening amid a renewed offensive by the rebel forces, as well as revenge attacks by multiple militia forces.
"Propping up the government in Juba and polishing its legitimacy with a dose of political dialogue and a dash of power sharing will not end the conflict," the International Crisis Group (ICG) wrote in a recent report.
On Thursday, hundreds of gunmen stormed a UN peacekeeping base in the flashpoint town of Bor, killing at least 48 men, women and children from a rival ethnic group sheltering there before peacekeepers fought them off.
The UN Security Council called the attack an "outrage" that may constitute a war crime. When fighting broke out on December 15, it was sparked by "primarily political" arguments between Machar and President Salva Kiir, the ICG said, but the battles have since escalated, spreading to other states in the oil-rich but impoverished nation.
"Ethnic targeting, communal mobilisation and spiralling violence quickly led to appalling levels of brutality against civilians," according to the ICG.
Atrocities were also carried out further north in the oil hub of Bentiu, which the army admitted on Wednesday it had lost to rebel forces. The UN aid agency said it had reports of "targeted killings based on ethnicity", with "several dozen" corpses rotting on the streets.
The violence is rooted in decades-old grievances between former rebels turned political leaders, combined with unhealed wounds left over from the long civil war that preceded South Sudan's independence from Khartoum in 2011.
The fighting is between soldiers loyal to Kiir and mutinous troops who sided with Machar, but has also taken on an ethnic dimension, pitting Kiir's Dinka tribe against militia forces from Machar's Nuer people.
Many of the fragile gains made with the billions of dollars of international development aid that poured in after independence have been lost.
Neighbouring Uganda has sent in troops and jet fighters to back the government, while Information Minister Michael Makuei has accused "forces from Sudan" of backing Machar, although he stopped short of actively accusing the government in Khartoum of interfering.