Kabul declares war on dogs
Some 17,000 have been poisoned to guard against the dangers of rabies
Cornered against a wall and with a steel hook pushed around his neck, the dog emits a savage howl in a desperate attempt to fight free, but poison will soon be forced into his mouth as Kabul's cull of strays claims another kill.
About 17,600 dogs were poisoned last year by municipal workers in the Afghan capital in an effort to protect residents from disease and to control the rocketing population of the pests that roam the city.
The method of killing is brutally effective.
Teams of dog-catchers use long steel hooks, wooden bars and large nets to trap their prey. A heavy boot is put on the dog's neck, and a spoon is used to press strychnine into the mouth.
The dogs are tied to ropes, and die within an hour in spasms of agony.
Alternatively, poisoned meat is left out and by morning the ground is littered with corpses.
The dogs, sometimes showing the final twitches of life, are thrown into the back of a truck and dumped on waste tips on the city outskirts.
"Every day, after evening prayers, we do this mass poisoning programme, working until 10pm, and we come back at 3am," said dog-catcher Islamuddin.
"We find these dogs, poison them and dump them where they will be buried."
Like many residents in the Pul-e-Charkhi neighbourhood where he works, Islamuddin has no qualms about killing dogs as part of a city policy that is widely seen as a necessary health precaution.
It is uncertain how many strays have rabies in Kabul, but the disease is feared as it is often fatal to humans if they are bitten or scratched by an infected dog.
Riaz Gul, from the nomadic Kuchi tribe that has a small camp in Pul-e-Charkhi, believes his 12-year-old son's recent death was caused by a dog bite.
"He was bitten on his arm, and then after about 50 days he started to seem crazy and get ill," he said. "I took him to a doctor and mullah, but to no avail, and he died.
"Of course, I am scared of the dogs. About 200 of them live in packs in this area."
Wherever the dog-catching team works, locals gather to watch the animals be trapped, poisoned and then die a slow death.
Dogs are regarded as unclean in Islam, and in Afghanistan they are generally kept only for security of homes or businesses or for organised dog fights rather than as domestic pets.
"They attack people going to the mosque and children walking to school. They spread disease," said Nasser Ahmad Ghori, director of the Kabul city health department.
"It is difficult to control them as they are in such great numbers, more than 100,000, I guess, and increasing."
Ghori said plans to neuter dogs to stop breeding or to launch a rabies vaccination programme were being considered in consultation with veterinary and health officials, but no other practical solution was available at present.
Animal welfare experts dismiss the cull as wantonly cruel, and futile.
"We agree there is a major problem of too many dogs," said Louise Hastie, a British expat who runs the Nowzad animal rescue shelter in Kabul.
"But the cull only means that new packs of dogs replace the dead ones within weeks, and they are more likely to have rabies as they come down from the mountains.
"The only answer is to trap, neuter, vaccinate and release the dogs. We are working with the authorities to set that up."
Ghazal Sharifi, a dentist, told how she had befriended a stray dog that had six puppies near her workplace but one day discovered them all being poisoned.
"The workers laughed at me as I held the dying bodies," Sharifi said. "This inhumane cruelty to animals is un-Islamic."