Voices of dissent over India's refusal to sign the global nuclear test-ban treaty have begun to surface. Two leading newspaper editorials challenged the all-party consensus opposing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, suggesting India may have made a tactical mistake. The Pioneer argued that the nation could not afford the financial, environmental or political costs of developing a nuclear arsenal. The Indian Express attacked attempts to force India to sign the treaty, but backed the agreement as a 'significant step towards nuclear disarmament'. 'Even India, bitter though it has reason to be for being put on the rack at Geneva, may find that this incomplete treaty is better than no treaty,' the paper said. Bramha Chellaney, a respected security affairs analyst, said India needed to formulate an active disarmament policy in order to turn the tables on the Western nuclear powers. The country either had to develop nuclear weapons or become involved in a global drive to disarm. 'India cannot remain in the worst of both worlds - no global disarmament and no Indian weaponisation - even as its external security environment deteriorates,' he said. Other analysts believe India may have raised the stakes too high with its opposition to the treaty. They consider its lone stand is partly muscle-flexing on the world stage by an increasingly confident nation. One former Indian politician said the country was likely to find itself under increasing pressure to sign the treaty. 'This may be a courageous gesture on India's part, and some people will be pleased to see the country standing up to the West. But there are many subtle pressures that can be brought by the Western powers, mostly of an economic nature. 'Beyond that it is doubtful that, while India has effectively reserved the right to develop a nuclear option, it can afford one.' The Times of India backed the Indian Government's opposition to the treaty, which was adopted on Tuesday by 158 of the 173 states with voting rights at the UN General Assembly. The Times argued that the five declared nuclear powers - the United States, Russia, China, France and Britain - would continue to maintain their nuclear dominance by carrying out tests by laboratory simulation. India, it said, had stood up for 'sovereignty and autonomy', adding: 'It was a sad day for the UN and the international community but a proud day for India.' New Delhi argues - with an eye on Pakistan and China - that it needs to keep its nuclear weapons option open in order to safeguard national security. But the Pioneer said that India should not try to ape the status of such nuclear powers as China. 'Non-nuclear countries with good standards of living and productivity are better models for India to emulate,' it said. The editorial said: 'In truth, how many Indians have lost a night's sleep worrying about a nuclear threat from either Pakistan or China?'