The chapter on business crime is the most amended and expanded part of the Criminal Law passed by the National People's Congress, showing Beijing's resolve to put in order the activities resulting from its economic reforms. But Friday's amendments, the first major change since the original Criminal Law was enacted in 1979, still leave grey areas which make life difficult for businessmen and the news media. Chapter Three, which governs business crimes, is greatly expanded, from 15 to to 82 articles, reflecting the increased complexity of China's economy. The original chapter only covered offences in four areas - speculation, trafficking, criminal damage and forgery. The amended chapter is divided into sections governing poor quality products, trafficking, destroying corporate and financial management order, financial cheating, hindering tax collection, infringing intellectual property rights and disturbing the order of the market. The common grey area, which will lead to subjective sentencing, is a lack of quantifiable standards for crimes. The section on 'crimes of destroying financial management order' is the most important as it deals with the embryonic financial market. The section stipulates that enterprises issuing shares and bonds without the consent of their superiors will be punished. The most controversial article concerns the leaking of any information which could affect the share prices of listed companies. It states that any 'well-informed' person or those who have obtained information illegally will be punished if they trade shares and leak such information before a formal announcement. The article defines 'well-informed' persons as senior enterprise officials and substantial corporate shareholders (with more than 10 per cent holdings), as well as those working for other stock-related parties. According to this stipulation, all news media and other financial information providers reporting such information before formal announcement will risk prosecution. A related article states that those who communicate false information and disturb stock markets will be given jail sentences of less than three years. Senior executives of listed companies committing such crimes will be given five-year sentences. This article also affects news media and financial information providers as many market-moving reports have been denied by Chinese authorities but later found to be correct. Another grey area is that of repeating large transactions, which is now considered to be share price manipulation. As China's share markets are shallow, funds can easily move prices of small counters by mediocre sums and are thus subject to criminal charges.