There had been at least 15 other cases in which co-conspirators had been named but not charged, the Secretary for Justice said. Two were still before the courts. Miss Leung cited several circumstances in which the co-conspirators were named but not charged. She did not specify which factor or factors applied to the Aw case. Previous incidents include the suspect being a witness for the prosecutor; the suspect was not under Hong Kong's jurisdiction; the suspect had died; prosecuting the suspect would not be in line with the prosecution policy and in the interest of the public. A Department of Justice spokesman said the 13 cases were tried between 1987 and 1994. The most prominent involved the Carrian Group. There were five co-conspirators named: George Tan Soon-gin, Lorrain Osman, Rais Saniman, Bentley Ho Kwai-chuen and Ibrahim Jaafar. Mr Ho and Mr Ibrahim were not prosecuted. Mr Ibrahim had acted as the Crown's witness. Lawyers said the decision was not unique. 'It's unusual - but I have seen it before,' said Michael Jackson, a lecturer at the University of Hong Kong's Department of Law. Bar Association vice-chairman Lawrence Lok Ying-kam, SC, said: 'Even if the co-conspirator is dead or disappeared, if they were a party to the conspiracy, he or she must be named. 'The defendant is entitled to know what the ambit of the conspiracy is, who are the participants and what is their alleged conduct that formed part of the conspiracy.'