A survey of Hong Kong's mobile-telephone networks suggests that in terms of outside coverage in popular areas, PCS networks are often equal or better in terms of quality than the older GSM systems. Based on research into different areas of performance, the survey by the University of Hong Kong's Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering found New World Telephone's PCS service to be the best network. Hongkong Telecom's GSM service had the second-best performance, followed by SmarTone's GSM network and Sunday PCS's service. Hutchison's PCS service was next, while Hongkong Telecom's PCS system was last. The university judged the networks according to call completion, voice quality, coverage and successful call set-up rate. The research was carried out outdoors along popular roads on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon and in parts of the New Territories. There were no tests carried out indoors or in the MTR or road tunnels. Had these areas been included, the results would have been more strongly in favour of GSM networks. In its conclusion, the university said PCS networks were quickly improving quality. But it noted that the system's superior performance could be the result of the relatively smaller customer base in comparison to the older GSM networks. The university made 2,200 calls to each of the 10 networks under consideration, travelling a distance of more than 1,600 kilometres around Hong Kong while doing so. The survey was carried out in June and July.