Who invented mass production? The concept of mass production was invented by American industrialist Henry Ford (1863-1947). He came up with the idea of mass producing cars on assembly lines. Instead of having highly skilled mechanics work on one vehicle, he divided the labour between a large number of workers, each doing only one task, to put together a car. Ford developed a strong interest in mechanics at an early age and left his father's farm in 1879 to work as an apprentice in a machine shop in Detroit. He soon went home and started experimenting with power-driven vehicles. In 1890, he went to Detroit again and worked as a machinist and engineer with the Edison Company. In 1892 he assembled his first car. After resigning from Edison, Ford set up the Ford Motor Company with his partners in 1903. A few years later, he bought the stocks of most of his associates, and the Ford family gained control of the company. By adapting the conveyor belt and assembly line to car production, cutting costs, gaining control of raw materials and the means of distribution, and featuring an inexpensive, standardised car, Ford was soon able to outdistance all his competitors and become the largest car producer in the world. In 1908, his company began producing the celebrated Model T. In 1921, he began producing high-priced cars along with other vehicles and founded branches in Britain and other European countries. Who invented trainers? Trainers, or sneakers, are essential athletic footwear among today's young people. Trainers have evolved from simple, practical sports shoes to hi-tech, multipurpose, multi-coloured shoes. Shoes with rubber soles were first marketed as canvas-top 'sneakers' by a United States company in 1917. However, the design and manufacturing of athletic shoes became both a science and a fashion because of Phil Knight and Bill Bowerman. In 1958, Knight, a business student at the University of Oregon and a runner on the track team, shared with his coach, Bowerman, a dissatisfaction with the clumsiness of running shoes. The two formed a company in 1964 to market a lighter and more comfortable shoe designed by Bowerman. In 1968, the company became Nike, named after the Greek goddess of victory. At the beginning, Knight and Bowerman sold their shoes at track meets across the western US. Good marketing and innovations helped their firm grow. Bowerman's most memorable breakthrough was the waffle sole he invented by shaping rubber in the waffle iron in his kitchen. Other essential innovations were the wedged heel, cushioned mid-sole and nylon uppers. After years of improvements and promotions, Nike and its competitors have created a mania for elaborate athletic shoes not only in the US, but around the world. Are all snake bites deadly? The bite of a non-venomous snake is rarely serious or dangerous. However, venomous snakes have hollow fangs through which poison is injected into the victim. All types of snake venom contain a toxin that affects the nerves and tends to paralyse the victim. In addition, the venom of the coral snake, the cobra and the South American rattlesnake contains chemicals that damage blood cells and dissolve the linings of blood and lymphatic vessels, causing severe or fatal internal bleeding. Snake bites should be immediately treated by applying a constricting band or an ice pack to retard the spread of the poison through the circulatory system, or by spraying ethyl chloride on the wound. The victim should avoid exertion and the taking of stimulants, which both increase the pulse rate. In the first few minutes after a bite, it is possible to remove much of the poison by suction. Antidotes are available for most types of snake venom. But if treatment is delayed the victim may die.