Educators in cities have less than five years to ensure all teachers and students can speak Putonghua fluently and write simplified characters well. According to Xinhua, a Ministry of Education circular says that while the target for schools in remote villages has been set at 2010, those in big and developed cities should aim at 2005. This means primary school and kindergarten teachers in cities must drop local dialects and change to Putonghua. The circular reminds teachers that their success in teaching in Putonghua will be one criteria used to determine their qualifications. Putonghua and simplified characters were created after the People's Republic emerged in 1949. Based largely on the dialect then spoken around Beijing, Putonghua was vastly different from tongues such as Cantonese spoken in Guangdong province. Ethnic minorities in areas such as Xinjiang and Tibet often refuse to learn Putonghua and simplified characters.