Following the changes to the Communist Party's constitution at its recent congress, questions have been raised as to whether these will be adopted into the national statute. Legal scholars say it is unlikely that constitutional amendments will be introduced at the National People's Congress (NPC) in March, since the 16th party congress stressed political and economic stability and discouraged political and constitutional reforms. Sources said the new NPC administration would likely want to postpone constitutional changes for one or two years in order to stabilise economic development. Legal experts on the mainland have proposed changes which include strengthening legal protection for private property and inserting President Jiang Zemin's 'Theory of the Three Representatives' into the national constitution. The theory states that the party must represent the most advanced elements of culture and production in China, including entrepreneurs. The party congress also approved the term 'political civilisation' on top of the existing 'spiritual and material civilisation' mentioned in the party charter, leading legal experts to debate whether the term should be incorporated into the national constitution in the next amendment. 'Political civilisation' is a wide concept which includes political and constitutional reform, better protection of human rights and the rule of law. Such vagueness has lured constitutional experts to put forth bold suggestions such as the establishment of an independent commission to monitor the implementation of the national constitution and the adding of extra clauses to boost privacy. In the United States, constitutional rights are upheld by the Supreme Court. France has its Constitution Commission, both Germany and Russia have constitution courts, while Taiwan has its Council of Grand Justice. On the mainland, the role is filled by the National People's Congress, but this is also the legislative and supervisory body. Meanwhile, there have also been calls from legal scholars to restore the right to strike and allow greater freedom of movement - rights that were deleted when the constitution was amended in 1982. The current constitution states that citizens have a fundamental 'right' and 'duty' to perform labour. Constitutional experts have proposed that the word 'duty' be removed as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights that China signed in 1998 says forced labour can only be ordered by the courts following a trial and verdict. Despite the fact that the amendment proposals are gathering momentum among legal and constitution experts, it is not clear if they will be accepted by the government. In the past, China's constitutional amendments have only been initiated by the government, never by public opinion. In addition, there is a precedent for delaying constitutional reform following a change in government. The current administration led by outgoing premier Zhu Rongji was elected at the NPC in 1997, but constitutional changes were not introduced until 1999.