The average mainlander to have settled in Hong Kong since 1995 is 25, has an income of $6,000 a month and works in low-skilled jobs such as retail and catering, a government survey has found. According to the Census and Statistics Department's report from the Population Census 2001, the number of mainlanders living in Hong Kong less than seven years almost doubled between 1991 and 2001. But the proportion to have received tertiary education declined during the period. The report said the number of mainland migrants having resided in Hong Kong for less than seven years increased from 143,944 in 1991 to 266,577 in 2001. Most of them were allowed into Hong Kong for family reunions. They represent about 4 per cent of the population of 6.7 million. The survey found their median age is 25, 11 years younger than the average Hong Kong resident. Among them, only 5.7 per cent of the migrants had received tertiary education, a sharp decline from 10.7 per cent in 1996 and a slight decrease from 7.8 per cent in 1991. About 23 per cent had upper secondary education, 38.4 per cent lower secondary education and 25.3 per cent primary education. However, the proportion with no education also dropped from 10.3 per cent in 1991 to 6.7 per cent last year. Hong Kong takes in up to 150 migrants a day from the mainland, of which 60 places are assigned to children born to SAR residents on the mainland and another 30 to spouses of Hong Kong people. The quota was only 75 in 1980, but it was raised to 105 in 1994 and then further expanded to 150 in 1995. The survey also found an increasing number of migrants were living in public housing, with 45 per cent in public rental flats, compared to 13.6 per cent in 1991. The median household income of the migrants is about $12,050, 64 per cent of the overall population's median of $18,705. Most of the migrants are engaged in low-skilled jobs in the catering, retail and wholesale, import and export, and hotel sectors. Their median personal income is about $6,000. Ho Hei-wah, director of the Society for Community Organisation, said the drop in the migrants' level of education was expected as many were young children and women. 'It would be extremely unfair to compare this group's education level with the local population as they come from a completely different population profile,' he said. He said the young migrants would help ease the problem of Hong Kong's ageing population, while there were still thousands of mainland university graduates among the arrivals.