The Philippines' political landscape will be dramatically reshaped if President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's vision for change is realised during her six-year term. Mrs Arroyo has often spoken of what she has termed the cumbersome nature of the country's presidential system of government and how it has prevented the smooth passage of legislation. She returned to the theme when speaking to journalists in Manila on Monday night, espousing the merits of the parliamentary model. But she made no such references in her inauguration speech, preferring instead to concentrate on the economy and job creation. University of the Philippines political scientist Clarita Carlos yesterday said such reforms were far from the minds of politicians after the election and Mrs Arroyo would put them on the agenda when she felt it was time. Change was needed, though, she said. 'We need situational reform to alter the direction of this country,' Dr Carlos, the former head of the National Defence College of the Philippines, said from Manila. 'Without that, we will have politics like we have had for the 58 years since independence.' Streamlining the legislative process was among far-reaching changes that Congress had been considering before their deliberations were cut short by the elections. Matters they were reviewing included a new constitution and the need for better political parties. The May elections have strengthened her hand in both houses of Congress, meaning the process could now push ahead. Former congressman Florencio Abad, a member of the Arroyo-allied Liberal Party, believed that the president was eyeing village elections in November next year as the forum to have voters decide whether reforms should take place. If approved, a parliamentary system of government and other changes would be in place for congressional elections in 2007. 'President Arroyo is motivated by the number of constitutional uprisings the Philippines has experienced because of the rigidity of the presidential system,' said Mr Abad, whose term ended at midnight. 'This has led to extra-constitutional means of changing leadership, as in 1986 and 2001. In both instances, we were lucky that they were peaceful, but this might not be the case next time.' Mr Abad explained that the parliamentary system of government allowed for a no-confidence vote in the leadership. Mrs Arroyo favoured the French parliamentary model, which provided for a president with substantial powers. 'President Arroyo is also concerned about greater efficiency in policymaking,' he said. 'She wants to foster a closer relationship between policymaking and policy implementation. A parliamentary system would provide this.' Paul Hutchcroft, visiting American scholar with the National University of Singapore's Asia Research Institute, believed the biggest failing of the Philippines' political system was the weakness of parties. 'The goal of any major reform project has to be the strengthening of political parties,' said Dr Hutchcroft, one of the US' foremost experts on the Philippines. He also suggested politics in the Philippines was made even more precarious by the lack of a strong, underpinning civil service.