The mainland's drug problem remains severe, a top narcotics control officer says, and traffickers will continue to receive harsh penalties. Yang Fengrui, director of narcotics control at the Ministry of Public Security, said China was a destination, transit point and manufacturing base for drug because of its porous borders. Most of the 70 to 80 tonnes of heroin produced every year in the Golden Triangle near the border with Myanmar found their way into the nation. The area supplied 95 per cent of all heroin on the mainland, while the Golden Crescent in Afghanistan and other sources accounted for the rest. Some drugs, especially methamphetamine, or Ice, are made on the mainland, mainly in coastal areas and smuggled to the Philippines, South Korea and Japan. Since Guangdong and Fujian provinces account for 80 per cent of the drugs seized, there has been a history of close co-operation between the Hong Kong and Guangdong police. The smashing of the drug ring led by notorious Hong Kong trafficker Lee Chau-ping - known as the 'Ice Queen' - was an example, Mr Yang said. Beijing unveiled a plan at a national narcotics-control conference last month to redouble resources to stop the spread of drugs at origin and strengthen co-operation with other countries. In May last year, mainland and Hong Kong police, working with agents from the US Drug Enforcement Administration, broke up a ring smuggling heroin from Fujian to North America. More than 20 dealers were caught and 45kg of heroin confiscated. Mr Yang said the public approved of executing traffickers.