Extracted from Case Closed by Gerald Posner (Little, Brown 1994). THE home movie made by [Abraham] Zapruder, a Dallas dressmaker, serves as a time clock for the assassination. By figuring when the first and last shots took place, it is possible to know how much total time the assassin had. The third shot is the easiest to pinpoint. On the Zapruder film, the President is hit in the head at frame 313. No matter what number of shots they heard, the witnesses were almost unanimous that the head shot was the final one. New Zapruder enhancements confirm that an early shot missed the President and the Governor [John Connally]. At frame 160, a young girl in a red skirt and white top, who was running along the left side of the President's car down Elm Street, began turning to her right. Not 1.5 seconds later, she had stopped, twisted completely away from the motorcade, and was staring back at the School Book Depository. When asked why she stopped, the girl, 10-year-old Rosemary Willis, said: 'I stopped when I heard the shot . . . I think I probably turned to look towards the noise, towards the Book Depository.' At the same time as she started turning, the enhanced film shows President Kennedy, who was waving as the car turned the corner, suddenly stop waving. He looked to the right towards the crowd, and then back to his left to [his wife] Jacqueline, as if to be reassured that everything was all right. As he began waving again, Mrs Kennedy's head abruptly twisted from her left to the right, the general direction of the School Book Depository. Connally's recollections and actions confirm the shot. 'We had just made the turn, when I heard what I thought was a shot,' he told the Warren Commission. 'I instinctively turned to my right because the sound appeared to come from over my right shoulder.'The film reveals that the Governor's head turned from mid-left to far right in less than half a second, beginning at frame 162, when the Willis girl started turning around and the President stopped waving. 'Jiggle analysis' provides additional evidence. Tests have shown that gunshots produce detectable motion on film made with a hand-held camera. While sudden movement of Zapruder's camera may not prove a shot was fired, its absence is good evidence there was no shot. The House Select Committee determined that there were four such noticeable movements, any of which could be evidence of a shot. The first significant blur was at frames 158-160, just as Oswald would have had to fire to avoid losing his target under a treethat would block his view for several seconds. The largest movement by Zapruder came at frames 313-314, the moment of the head shot. All told, there is strong evidence that Oswald fired the first shot at frame 160. Since the last shot, to the President's head, was at frame 313, that translates to 8.0 to 8.4 seconds total shooting time. That is enough time for even a mediocre gunman to operate the bolt twice and aim for three shots. So how was it possible that Lee Harvey Oswald, who put one bullet into Kennedy's neck, and another into his head, missed not only the occupants of the car with his first shot, but even the car itself? The Commission never studied the large oak tree that blocked the sniper's view for almost 2.5 seconds. According to a firearms expert, Robert Kraus, 'if [the bullet] hit [a] branch head on, it might have separated the bullet from the jacket' (the bullets Oswald fired had lead cores and copper jackets). Virgie Rachley worked at the Book Depository and watched the motorcade from its front steps. Just after the car passed, she heard the first noise: 'I saw a shot or something hit the pavement . . . it looked just like you could see the sparks from it and Ijust thought it was a firecracker.' Whatever it was, she was certain she saw it before she heard a second shot. About 520 feet from the Book Depository, in a straight line from the sniper's nest and the tree, James Tague had stopped his car and was standing at the southern end of the triple underpass. After the assassination, a deputy sheriff asked him why he had blood on his face. 'I remembered something had stung me during the shooting,' he recalled. The two crossed the street and on the edge of a kerb found a bullet mark. A fragment had struck the kerb, sending a chip of concrete into Tague's cheek. What is likely is that after the bullet fragmented against a tree branch, the stable lead core continued moving in a straight line from the Depository and struck the kerb more than 500 feet away. The destabilised copper jacket hit the pavement, giving Virgie Rachley the impression of sparks. Neither fragment was recovered. If the first shot was near frame 160 and the third one at 313, when was the middle shot? And was it possible for that second bullet to have caused both the President's neck wound and all the Governor's wounds? On the enhanced version of the Zapruder film, when the presidential car emerges from behind the road sign, at frame 225, President Kennedy's right arm appears to be rising in response to a bullet wound. Governor Connally does not appear to show any reaction to his wounds until his mouth opens at frame 235. That difference of 10 frames is slightly more than half a second between the reactions of the two men. But the Warren Commission was not able to pinpoint the exact frame at which the President and the Governor were hit, instead giving only a range from frame 210, and then argued that since Connally did not show a clear reaction until frame 235 (a difference of 25 frames, or 1.4 seconds), his reaction was too slow for him to have been hit by the same bullet that hit Kennedy. If Connally was hit by another bullet, it had to have been fired by a second gunman, since the Warren Commission's own reconstruction showed that Oswald could not have operated the bolt and re-fired in 1.4 seconds. The House Select Committee actually increased the discrepancy. It said Kennedy was wounded at frame 190 and the earliest they saw a marked difference in Connally's posture and facial expressions was frame 226. If the same bullet struck both men, the Committee's difference of 36 frames meant thatthe Governor sat unfazed in his seat for nearly two seconds after being wounded. Further enhancements of the film clear up the confusion. They show that before the President disappeared behind the sign at frame 200, he was waving to the crowd with his right hand. Even when the car and his body are obscured by the road sign, the top ofhis right hand can sometimes be seen waving. By frame 224, the car is back in view. In frame 225, the President is almost in full view, and his hand is lower. He was bringing it down from a wave. By 226, Kennedy has started raising his arm again. At 227, the President's elbow is jerked off the car. He was in full reaction to the bullet that hit him from the rear and exited his throat. Working backward from Kennedy's reaction, it is possible to pinpoint the precise time of the second shot. The Warren Commission was not aware that the President's spine was damaged by the bullet that entered the base of his neck, since the autopsy physicians did not examine the spine and did not use the X-rays in preparing their final report. When Dr John Lattimer, a renowned New York surgeon and a medical and ballistics expert, examined the autopsy X-rays in 1972, he found 'blast injury' trauma near the sixth cervical vertebra. Such a spinal injury is significant because it can cause an instantaneous reaction called Thorburn's position. The victim's arms jerk up into a fixed position, almost parallel with the chin, with the hands gathered near the neck and the elbows pushed out to the sides. That is exactly the position the President started assuming at frames 226-227. Kennedy's Thorburn response at frames 226-227 would have come between one and two tenths of a second after the bullet hit, which translates into 1.8 to 3.66 Zapruder frames. That means he was wounded at frames 223-224, or just before he was visible from behind the road sign. That is 3.5 seconds after Oswald had fired his first shot near frame 160, more than enough time for him to cock the bolt, re-aim and fire again. The focus now moves to Governor Connally. When does he show the evidence of being shot? Is there enough of a delay to raise the possibility that a separate bullet from a second gunman struck him? The Zapruder film at its normal speed provides a misleadingimpression. The enhanced film shows several reactions that reveal exactly when the Governor was hit. At 224, the right lapel of the Governor's suit flies away from his chest. The jacket movement was discovered in a 1992 computer enhancement by Failure Analysis Associates, which specialises in computerised reconstructions for litigation. It may be one of the most important timing confirmations in the case, as it establishes themoment the bullet hit him. This is the exact area where the Governor's suit and shirt have a bullet hole, as the missile passed through his right shoulder blade and out under his right nipple. Since Kennedy and Connally were less than two feet apart, the bullet passed through them almost simultaneously at frame 224. Was it possible for one bullet to have inflicted the neck wound on President Kennedy and all of the wounds on Governor Connally? To find out, Failure Analysis Associates created a full-size model of the presidential limousine. Then a camera was placed in relation to where Zapruder was standing and the lens was set to the same focal length. Using the Zapruder film, the images of Kennedy and Connally were sketched into the car, and then people who were the exact height and weight of the two men were positioned in the seats. Once the automobile was filmed, it was placed into animation and located at the exact spot on Elm Street it had occupied when the second shot was fired, at frame 224. Then the wounds on the President and Governor were measured and extended into the animation. The computer was now ready to answer two questions. The first was whether one bullet could cause all the wounds: the answer was yes. The bullet punctured Kennedy's upper back, exited his throat, and on a straight line trajectory entered Connally's right shoulder. It continued on a downward angle and exited under his right nipple. Because he had turned in his seat, the Governor was slightly to the right. His right forearm was held against the lower portion of his chest, and when the bullet exited it was deflected down through his right wrist and then went into his left thigh. The second question resolved by the recreation was where the sniper would have to be to achieve this trajectory. The computer worked backward to provide a 'cone' within which the sniper must be. 'In this case,' says Dr Robert Piziali, who supervised the tests, 'the cone is almost centred on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository. The shot could only have come from within that cone.' The final issue on the single bullet is whether CE399, the bullet found on Connally's stretcher at Parkland Hospital, could have inflicted the wounds to both men and remained only partially deformed. CE399, designated the 'magic bullet' by buffs, is described as 'pristine' in conspiracy books. In fact, although it is not fragmented or crushed, it is somewhat flattened. The Warren Commission's test bullet, fired into a cadaver's wrist to simulate Connally's wrist wound, emerged with a badly smashed nose. Does this indicate that CE399 could not have passed through both Kennedy and Connally, as critics suggest? 'The Warren Commission did not conduct the proper experiments,' says Dr Lattimer. 'They fired a 6.5 mm shell travelling at over 2,000 ft [600 metres] per second directly into a wrist bone. Of course you are going to get deformation of the bullet when it strikes a hard object at full speed. If Governor Connally's wrist had been hit on the straight fly by that bullet, CE399, the bullet would be in much worse shape, and so would his wrist.' Dr Martin Fackler, president of the International Wound Ballistics Association, finds the condition of CE399 'entirely consistent' with a bullet that inflicted the seven wounds on the two men. 'It's a long bullet [1.25 inches], and I would expect it to beflattened on the side, just like you had flattened it in a vice.' In 1992, Failure Analysis reduced the charge on a 6.5 mm bullet so it travelled at 1,100 ft [330 metres] per second, approximating the speed of CE399 when it struck Connally's wrist. The test bullet was shot into a cadaver's wrist and emerged in better condition than CE399. There is also the question of the tiny flakes of metal (less than two grains from a 161.2 grain bullet) recovered from Connally's wrist and thigh. Did these come from the bullet found on Connally's stretcher? The House Select Committee engaged Dr Vincent Guinn, one of America's most respected experts on neutron activation, to explore that issue. Guinn discovered that the bullets made for Oswald's Mannlicher-Carcano rifle were so lacking in uniformity that he was able to match fragments with a degree of certainty that is normally impossible. He concluded that 'there is no evidence for three bullets, four bullets or anything more than two'. Bullet fragments from Kennedy's brain matched three testable fragments found on the floor of the limousine, meaning that they were all part of the third shot fired - and the stretcher bullet proved to be indistinguishable, both in antimony and silver, from the fragments recovered from the Governor's wrist. Not one witness gave a contemporaneous statement about a second gunman at Dealey Plaza. However, ever since that day, new witnesses have stepped forward, sometimes many years later, claiming to have seen the real assassin.