Read the following comprehension passage and answer the multiple-choice questions 1. In a world where more and more faceless transactions are carried out and in which shop-keepers and bankers do not know the people with whom they are dealing, identity theft has become a serious problem. 2. Determined criminals can gain access to someone's confidential business without too much difficulty. They shoulder-surf to learn our PINs; they sort through people's rubbish in order to find credit card and identity card numbers, and they may even intercept our mail, selecting letters from banks in order to get account numbers and other data they can misuse. 3. The internet has opened up new opportunities for identity theft. Hackers can get into websites loaded with private information. Rather naive people even answer email messages offering free gifts and hand over their details voluntarily. 4. Armed with our numbers, address and date of birth, the thieves can start robbing us. They may buy things on our accounts, make telephone calls at our expense, hire cars and obtain loans in our name, withdraw money from our bank and generally abuse the information they have obtained. If they give false addresses, they can even ensure that it takes time for you to realise what is happening. 5. How can we protect ourselves? Firstly, we need to be cautious about giving anyone information. When people ring up claiming to be from banks needing to check information, ring them back at the bank's number. Be very suspicious when anyone tells you you have won a prize or suddenly become eligible for some wonderful free gift. Tear up personal documents before throwing them away. See that your mail is secure and not left lying around. React immediately if you do not receive your normal bank statements. Check them thoroughly. 6. If, despite all your care, something goes wrong, contact all financial institutions you have a relationship with. Double check everything to see how far the damage has spread and act energetically to put a stop to it. Call in the police. Treat the situation as an emergency. Now choose the best answers. An example of 'a faceless transaction' (para 1) would be A) covering your face for robbery. B) using a false name. C) transferring money by ATM. D) using an Octopus card. Which of these is not mentioned as a method of gaining private information (para 2)? A) Opening people's post. B) Asking for information from banks. C) Watching people key in numbers at ATMs. D) Reading thrown away documents. Why is it 'naive' to answer messages offering free gifts (para 3)? A) Free gifts are never really free. B) We should work for what we have. C) One should never miss an opportunity. D) Websites are not secure from hackers. Why do the thieves give false addresses (para 4)? A) To stop the police from finding them. B) Because they do not know the real address. C) So that the goods will be delivered to them. D) To make sure you do not know what is happening. Why should you worry if you do not receive your statement (para 5)? A) It may have been lost. B) Someone has changed the address for it. C) There is no money left. D) Thieves may have stolen it. Paragraph _________ concerns ways of avoiding being cheated. A) 2 B) 4 C) 5 D) 6 What is the writer's tone? A) Friendly. B) Illegal. C) Worried. D) Surprised. Answers and notes C. Read on to make sure you understand what the passage is about: people stealing by pretending to be someone else because they know their personal data. C best fits this. When we interact with a machine we are faceless as no one sees us. You do not need any information to use an Octopus card. B. You need to compare the question options and the second paragraph, looking for synonyms. Post=mail; ATM number=PIN; thrown away=rubbish. There is nothing corresponding to B. A. You need to work out the meaning of naive. From the context it seems to mean being very trusting, not being suspicious enough (=innocent). Then look at the options and decide which statement refers to how a less trusting person would think. D. The passage tells you the false address ensures it takes time for the victim to realise what is happening. This is the same as make sure you do not know what is happening. B. In the context of the passage and the last question, the danger is someone is interfering with your affairs. B. Look at the first sentences of the paragraphs to see what they are about. avoiding being cheated= protect oneself C. Look through the choices. Friendly: the passage is fairly neutral. Illegal: it is advising you to protect yourself against crime. Worried: yes, especially in paragraph 6 with all the orders and talk of emergency. Surprised: not mentioned; sadly, theft is nothing unusual.