THE ROYAL FAMILY of Luxembourg has two distinctive residences - the Grand Ducal Palace, where the Grand Duke and Grand Duchess spend their working days and hold official receptions, and the Berg Castle, their private home. Built as a town hall in 1244, the Grand Ducal Palace has survived several wars and occupations. It was converted into a tavern in the second world war and is now the Duchy's administrative landmark and symbol of its independence and sovereignty. The palace has undergone many facelifts over time, one of the most significant being Grand Duke Adolph's revamp in 1890 to signal the arrival of the new Nassau-Weilbourg dynasty. A new wing with family rooms and guest accommodation was built in the courtyard so the palace could be used exclusively for official purposes. Further changes between 1991 and 1996 were for improving the functional aspects of the apartments and service rooms and conserving the palace without modifying the architecture. The palace houses a variety of artworks including paintings by Largiliere and Tischbein, collections of oriental and Dutch china, Sevres vases and Russian malachite vases. Visitors admire the ochre stonework decorated with spires and railings, the pitched roof and graceful turrets and attic windows. The five windows on each floor bring in plenty of natural light while accentuating an elegant facade softened by late Spanish Renaissance-style decoration. Berg Castle, meanwhile, became the exclusive home of the Grand Duke under the constitution of 1848. The castle is set in central Luxembourg, near where the Alzette and Attert rivers meet. Although the estate of Berg dates back to as early as 1311, it did not come into royal hands until 1845, when William II, King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg, bought it and established the Grand Ducal residence. When William IV succeeded to the throne in 1906 he decided to replace the old castle with a building better suited to the needs of the day. He had the old castle demolished and ordered the construction of a new one, which was completed in 1911 with architects Max Ostenrieder and Pierre Funck-Eydt in charge. Berg Castle then became the primary residence of the royal family. During the second world war the castle was converted into an institution for the re-education of local girls. Much of its valuable artwork was plundered by the Germans during the occupation. Further restoration, completed in 1964, was carried out at the request of Grand Duke Jean, Grand Duke Henri's father.