Under the government's new funding for kindergartens, parents will be given vouchers, initially worth up to HK$13,000 a year, to cover much of their children's fees for all three years of pre-schooling. The move means that Hong Kong joins a small number of countries and school districts adopting the school choice approach advocated by economist Milton Friedman. But unlike Dr Friedman's preferred free-market model for vouchers, choice is limited to non-profit-making schools, and with a ceiling on the fees they charge. The best-known voucher schemes, in a handful of education districts in the United States, involve giving children from most disadvantaged families vouchers to pay for private schools previously only affordable to the well-off. Such vouchers are means-tested. England and Wales are among the few places that have experimented with vouchers for nursery education. Under the scheme launched in 1997, all four-year-olds were entitled to vouchers, which could be used to pay for places in both public and private pre-schools, or in the nursery sections of primary schools. However, it was scrapped the following year, criticised for failing to provide stable and long-term funding for schools and for creating new inequality between rich and poor, with the former able to pay the higher top-up fees of private schools.