The 11 factors for effective schools that principal Lilian Chan says heads should heed to are: Professional leadership: it should be firm and purposeful; with a participative approach and the principal being the 'leading professional'. Shared vision and goals: there should be unity of purpose, consistency of practice and collegiality. A learning environment: the atmosphere should be orderly, the working environment attractive Concentration on teaching and learning: learning time must be maximised, with an academic emphasis and focus on achievement. Purposeful teaching: it should be organised efficiently, with clarity of purpose and structured lessons and adaptive practices that encourage pupil independence and responsibility for managing their own learning. Expectations: these should be high all round, be clearly communicated and provide challenge. Positive reinforcement: discipline should be clear and fair while feedback is direct and positive. Monitoring progress: there should be well established mechanisms for monitoring progress. Student rights and responsibilities: efforts should be made to raise students' self-esteem, allow them to control their work. Home-school partnership: there should be a culture that promotes parental involvement. A learning organisation: school-based staff development should be ongoing. Source: key characteristics of effective schools - a review of school effectiveness research, by Pam Sammons, Josh Hillman and Peter Mortimer.