Express Dowager Ci Xi ruled over China for 47 years, from 1861 to her death in 1908. She was the mother of the young Emperor Tongzhi. After the death of Tongzhi at the age of 19 in 1875, she made her three-year-old nephew, then named Guang Xu, the emperor. Ci Xi continued to influence Guang Xu's decisions and actions. In 1898, Guang Xu began the Hundred Days' Reform, which led to conflict with Ci Xi. She had the emperor placed under house arrest in total isolation. During Ci Xi's reign, the Qing government suffered from fighting among corrupt officials. She was forced to sign a treaty of unequal terms with the west. While on her deathbed, Ci Xi chose Puyi to ascend to the throne at the age of three. Puyi was known as the last emperor of China.