The term 'method acting' encompasses a number of different acting techniques, most of which involve actors drawing on their own emotions and experiences. The first person to develop the technique was Russian actor and director Konstantin Stanislavski (1863-1938). He created the 'Stanislavski system', which sought a more life-like form of acting than the highly stylised gestures customary in 19th-century theatre. American actor and director Lee Strasberg popularised elements of Stanislavski's system at the Group Theatre in New York from 1931 to 1935. His approach came to be known as 'the method'. Stella Adler, a fellow actor at the Group Theatre, created an approach to method acting that was said to be more in tune with that of Stanislavski. After the Group Theatre disbanded in 1935, Adler and Strasberg went their separate ways but both taught some of Hollywood's most respected actors. Adler's students included Marlon Brando, Robert De Niro, Roy Schneider and Benicio Del Toro. Strasberg's world famous Actors Studio produced a string of stars such as Al Pacino, James Dean, Paul Newman, Jane Fonda, Dustin Hoffman, Ellen Burstyn, Steve McQueen and Dennis Hopper. Brando was widely regarded as the greatest method actor of his time, but he actually disliked the term 'the method' and used the mystique surrounding it to mask some dubious behaviour. In 1951, an intoxicated Brando was unable to continue filming Viva Zapata! after downing vodka for a scene in which his character, Zapata, was meant to be drunk. The crew tried shooting the scene several times over six weeks but Brando was always too inebriated. Eventually they left him in Mexico and abandoned the scene. Nicolas Cage won an Academy Award for his portrayal of a suicidal alcoholic in 1995's Leaving Las Vegas, a role he researched by binge drinking for two weeks in Dublin and getting a friend to videotape him under the influence so he could study his speech patterns. He later said, 'It was one of the most enjoyable pieces of research I've ever had to do for a part.' De Niro spent three months working 12-hour shifts to prepare for his role as psychopathic loner Travis Bickle in 1976's Taxi Driver. For his Oscar-winning performance as the young Vito Corleone in The Godfather Part II, he spent four months living in Sicily and learning the dialect. For his role as a remorseless killer in the 1991 remake of Cape Fear, De Niro spent US$5,000 having his teeth professionally damaged by a dentist, then US$20,000 having them repaired again. Daniel Day-Lewis is renowned for taking method acting to an extreme. For his Oscar-winning role in My Left Foot, Day-Lewis learned how to write and paint with his toes, and insisted on staying in his wheelchair even when the cameras weren't rolling, much to the annoyance of the crew, who had to carry him over cables and feed him. He later worked with the same director and crew for his role as wrongly convicted Irishman Gerry Conlon in In the Name of the Father. This time they were happy to oblige when he requested they keep him in a cell and throw verbal abuse and cold water at him. During the filming of Marathon Man in 1976, Hoffman reportedly turned up on set looking absolutely exhausted. He explained to co-star Sir Lawrence Olivier that he had stayed awake for 24 hours because, at that point in the movie, his character had done so. Olivier replied, 'My dear boy, you should try acting! It's much easier.'