The Communist Party has been making crucial decisions on party guidelines and policies in its national congresses, choosing the direction for the world's most populous nation. In 1982, after more than a decade of the turmoil of the Cultural Revolution and class struggle, the 12th party congress put the mainland on a new track: the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The slogan, coined by leader Deng Xiaoping was rhetorically in line with the nation's existing socialist system, yet laid a theoretical foundation for the pursuit of economic growth. In the 13th party congress in 1987, Deng expanded on the theory, saying the mainland was in the initial stages of socialism when productivity was low and material wealth was insufficient, so it should develop a market economy under the party leadership instead of sticking totally to a planned system. But opinions were split on whether developing commodities was a feature of capitalism. The combination of market and planned pricing mechanisms created a hotbed for graft. Officials were found taking advantage of their authority and using their access to cheaply priced goods to sell them at higher prices on the open market. The scandals, combined with soaring consumer prices induced by supply shortages, triggered the Tiananmen Square protests in 1989. In 1992, Deng, 88, made his famous tours of eastern and southern China to reassure people that the market economy would go on for a century. Later that year, at the 14th party congress, party secretary and president Jiang Zemin called for faster economic development. The congress defined Deng as the chief designer of the policy of reform and opening up and his theories as the party's pole star. In 1997, the 15th party congress decided the mainland's fundamental economic system would retain a dominant position for public ownership but would develop diverse forms of ownership side by side. Entrepreneurs and private business owners were assured of their place five years later when the party revised its charter. The charter says the party represents the most advanced productivity, which is not restricted to workers and includes private sector workers.