The East Turkestan Independence Movement is a diverse and loose grouping of Uygur activists, and their objective of establishing an independent Xinjiang has little chance of success because of the lack of leadership and organisation, mainland scholars say. Yang Shu, a Central Asia expert at Lanzhou University, said that despite there being more than 50 East Turkestan organisations of various sizes overseas, they had failed to establish a united leadership. He described 'East Turkestan' as only a general concept, not a well-organised system. 'They are all only mobs, separated by different interests and splinter groups,' Professor Yang was quoted by the Sanlian Life Weekly earlier as saying. He said small East Turkestan organisations usually launched small-scale violence in Xinjiang, while larger groups carried out activities in Europe highlighting demands for independence in the region. Wang Mingye, a Xinjiang expert, said the East Turkestan Independence Movement was at an initial development stage without a mature political programme, and lagged far behind sophisticated terrorist groups in the Middle East. The independence movement comprised more than 50 organisations - some of which had been active terrorists - since the 1990s. They operated mostly in Xinjiang but also throughout China and neighbouring countries. The movement was often confused with a much smaller, more radical and tightly structured organisation - the East Turkestan Islamic Movement, he said. The East Turkestan Islamic Movement, together with the East Turkestan Liberation Organisation and the World Uyghur Youth Congress and some other groups had been labelled by China and the United States as terrorist organisations. Mainland authorities have previously accused Osama Bin Laden's al-Qaeda network of funding these groups to train terrorists and carry out terrorist activities in Xinjiang. On February 5, 1991, the 'Islamic Reformist Party' carried out a bus bombing in Urumqi , killing and injuring more than 20 people. Between June and September 1993, the 'East Turkestan Democratic Islamic Party' carried out a series of bombings in southern Xinjiang, which led to at least two deaths and 36 injuries. On February 25, 1997, the 'East Turkestan National Solidarity Union' staged a series of bomb attacks in Urumqi, which killed nine people and injured more than 60. Mainland authorities have launched extensive anti-terrorism campaigns in recent years, particularly this summer in the run-up to the Olympics. Earlier this month, mainland authorities said 82 suspected Islamic terrorists and separatists had been detained in the first half of the year after police raids on terrorist training camps and sites.