Determining the power of political connections
Businesses need to consider the value government links offer, and whether they should pursue central or local authority contacts
Whether it is passing laws, setting policies, providing infrastructure and access to capital or facilitating market entry, government actions can have a powerful effect on the performance of companies.
Not surprisingly, government involvement in the marketplace and firms’ political activities have led to increased scrutiny of business-government political ties and governments’ impact on firms’ performance.
Past research has shown that political ties can help companies survive and may improve their financial returns and market value. These studies suggest there is value for a company and its management to develop and nurture political connections.
Political ties are costly to establish and maintain, however. So how effectively and under what conditions can they enhance a firm’s survival and performance?
To answer this question, we studied 280 companies in China’s television manufacturing industry during its critical period from 1993 to 2003 when the sector had grown to be the largest in the world, and was experiencing intense competition after the government deregulated it.
Given the role of the Chinese government in developing several industries and the widespread use of political ties to support connected businesses, China provides a setting to understand the impact of political ties on corporate growth.
It is important to note that we focused on ties formed by government and business officials holding official appointments in the other domain. We did not evaluate ties formed through family or social relationships or other unofficial connections.
We first examined whether political ties affected corporate survival and growth. We then explored whether the relationship between political ties and corporate survival and performance is the same for firms with weaker prior performance that are likely to have less resources and capabilities, and firms with stronger prior performance which have greater resources and capabilities in areas such as product development, manufacturing, logistics and marketing to compete effectively.
We also explored the effect of ties established with local government organisations (local ties) and national government organisations (central ties) to find out if they lead to different outcomes.
Factors impacting the value of ties
Some 55 political ties were identified among 33 firms – 35 were local ties and 20 were central ties. The rest of the 280 firms did not have official political ties.
Our research showed that political ties could buffer firms from threats to their survival and, under certain conditions, even enable sales growth.
However, these gains depend on company performance and the type of the political tie. We found that political ties could help poorly performing firms survive, and stronger performing firms grow. However, political ties only helped stronger firms grow faster, but not weaker firms. This relationship was observed for local ties but not for central ties.
Local authorities have greater incentives to address the needs of local firms to grow their local economies and attract new businesses to their areas. These local political ties can help companies use local information and resources, such as grants and funding, to increase their performance and survive against the odds.
We also found that stronger performing firms gained fewer survival benefits from local ties but they still enjoyed faster sales growth with local ties, possibly because these ties could provide the specific resources that they could build on to enable further growth. However, the resources that political ties provided may not be specific enough to correct internal failure in firms, preventing them from helping weaker firms grow.
In contrast, central governments have broader nationwide authority and responsibilities, and potentially greater access to resources. Although firms might be able to draw resources from central ties, these may not be specific enough to buffer them from threats to their survival or enable them to achieve higher sales growth.
Implications for company managers and policymakers
Political ties generally are more valuable in mitigating threats to survival than through enabling sales performance. In particular, political ties help weaker performing firms reduce threats to survival and enable stronger performing companies to improve sales growth.
With firms often exploring the value of their government relationships, managers now have a deeper understanding that government ties can have an impact on their firm’s economic value. They can now make more informed decisions about the type of ties they use to mitigate risk of failure or drive higher performance.
As central ties may only offer symbolic benefits or may carry costs that offset benefits, firms need to consistently and proactively focus on engaging with local officials to generate business opportunities and manage risk.
As the business value at stake is significant, companies need to organise their government affairs efforts to drive benefits, working collaboratively across the business to capture value from their local ties. One strong conclusion is that political ties are not a panacea, and only offer limited benefits in competitive environments.
For policy makers, questions arise on the efficacy of channelling public resources to under-performing firms, suggesting that there may be limited economic returns from providing additional resources to a poorly performing firm.
Importantly, our results highlight the vital role of local authorities in supporting the local economy. Our study focused on China but local policy makers in developed markets also have the power to actively encourage growth and new businesses in their area.
Kulwant Singh is a professor at the National University of Singapore (NUS) Business School where Zheng Weiting obtained her PhD, she is now at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University; Will Mitchell is at the University of Toronto