A 19th century painting of Canton harbour and factories. A faction of British merchants there orchestrated the first opium war, a new book argues.

Who caused the opium war? British merchants of Canton, argues new book by Singapore academic

A faction of merchants known as the ‘Warlike party’, not colonialist British policy or Qing dynasty intransigence, cause conflict that forced emperor to cede Hong Kong and open doors wider to trade, Song-Chuan Chen writes

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A 19th century painting of Canton harbour and factories. A faction of British merchants there orchestrated the first opium war, a new book argues.
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Peter Neville-Hadley

Peter Neville-Hadley

Former China resident Peter Neville-Hadley is the author of multiple guides and reference works on China, and writes on Chinese culture and on cultural travel in general for assorted periodicals. His work has appeared in the Wall Street Journal, Time Magazine, The Sunday Times (UK), and numerous other newspapers and magazines around the world.