A 19th century painting of Canton harbour and factories. A faction of British merchants there orchestrated the first opium war, a new book argues.

Who caused the opium war? British merchants of Canton, argues new book by Singapore academic

A faction of merchants known as the ‘Warlike party’, not colonialist British policy or Qing dynasty intransigence, cause conflict that forced emperor to cede Hong Kong and open doors wider to trade, Song-Chuan Chen writes

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A 19th century painting of Canton harbour and factories. A faction of British merchants there orchestrated the first opium war, a new book argues.
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