John F. Kennedy's famous "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech still sparks debate. Did he proclaim himself a jam-filled doughnut when he meant to say he identified with being a resident of Berlin? It is now generally agreed that in context, there was no reason for any confusion. In any case, people from Berlin call jam-filled doughnuts pfannkuchen. Outside of Berlin, however, the pastry is often called a Berliner. It is said that during the Seven Years' war, between Prussia and Austria, a patriotic baker from Berlin wanted to join the Prussian army but was turned away, deemed unfit for service. However, he was allowed to serve as a baker for the troops. He didn't have access to an oven, so he deep-fried his dough in oil over a campfire instead, and the soldiers called the fried pastry a Berliner after the baker's hometown. Others say that the idea came from the Romans, as they had deep-fried fritters long before the Germans. In a cookbook published in Nuremberg in 1485, Kuchenmeisterei , meaning (mastery of the kitchen), there is a recipe for gefullte krapfen , which consists of jam sandwiched in two rounds of leavened dough and deep-fried in lard, although the popularity of the pastry cannot be determined. Many believe that the rapid increase in Berlin's population in the 16th and 17th centuries caused bakers to look for faster ways to cook pastry, and deep-frying became the norm. When its popularity spread beyond Germany's borders to the US, it appears that the Berliner also became known as a Bismark. In John F. Mariani's Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink , a reference is made to Otto von Bismark, as well as to a battleship named for the first chancellor of Germany - the doughnuts were supposedly a similar shape. More plausibly, some say that the term Bismark came into use in Berlin, as residents wanted to name their favourite pastry after the influential man.