A woman receives a vaccination at a centre in Beijing, in China, on January 8. Photo: Getty Images
A woman receives a vaccination at a centre in Beijing, in China, on January 8. Photo: Getty Images
Wee Kek Koon
Opinion

Opinion

Reflections by Wee Kek Koon

From bronze tokens to ‘vaccine passports’: a history of Chinese travel documents

  • Even in pre-imperial China, when travel was far from common, documents were required for those who crossed internal and international borders
  • Buddhist monk Xuanzang, immortalised in the novel Journey to the West, traversed and exited China illegally without documentation

A woman receives a vaccination at a centre in Beijing, in China, on January 8. Photo: Getty Images
A woman receives a vaccination at a centre in Beijing, in China, on January 8. Photo: Getty Images
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