10 richest people who ever lived – net worths, ranked: Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos don’t come close to Genghis Khan, oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller or ‘trillionaires’ Catherine the Great and Joseph Stalin

Genghis Khan, John D. Rockefeller, Mansa Musa, Empress Wu and Catherine the Great all had immense wealth. Photos: Handout; Shutterstock; @Dr_TheHistories/Twitter; Mary Evans Picture Library; @catherinee_thee_greatt/Instagram
Right now, Elon Musk is by far the richest person on earth.
Tesla boss Elon Musk’s immense fortune pales into insignificance compared to the richest people in history. Photo: AFP

Forbes estimates the serial tech entrepreneur’s fortune at be about US$220 billion, thanks to his portfolio of companies including electric car manufacturer Tesla, rocket producer SpaceX and tunnelling project The Boring Company.

Yet, despite his astonishing net worth, the 51-year-old’s billions don’t even come close to the wealth of the richest people in history – proportionally speaking.. Yup, that means Amazon’s Jeff Bezos, Microsoft’s Bill Gates and Indian tycoons Gautam Adani and Mukesh Ambani also don’t make the cut.

Inside Kanye West and Elon Musk’s weird, decade-long bromance

Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos is currently the second richest person on the planet – but not necessarily the second richest of all time. Photo: AP

It is however important to note that the further we go back in time, the harder it is to put an accurate or fair figure on how relatively rich an individual was as, well, times were much different back then. Wealth was based on gold, land, salt and power – and not all academics agree on the valuations.

But we’ve done our best stocktaking, and according to several sources, and the work of a number of historians, these are richest people to ever walk the earth – after factoring in inflation and the worth of commodities in the day – in 2022 dollars.

10. John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937)

Estimated net worth today: US$340 billion

John D. Rockefeller, pictured here in 1909, is considered one of the greatest entrepreneurs of all time. Photo: Shutterstock

According to numerous sources including Celebrity Net Worth, John D. Rockefeller built up a fortune that would be worth around US$340 billion in today’s money.

The American business magnate and philanthropist established the Standard Oil Company in 1870, which controlled 90 per cent of US refineries and pipelines by the early 1880s, according to the website History. While the New Yorker faced controversy for monopolising of the industry, Rockefeller also played a big part in giving back to the community, donating about US$500 million to educational, religious and scientific causes through the Rockefeller Foundation.

9. Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919)

Estimated net worth today: US$372 billion

Andrew Carnegie was a steel business magnate who gave away 90 per cent of his fortune. Photo: @Steelmanof1835/Twitter states that this Scottish-born industrialist stacked up the equivalent of around US$372 billion by leading the expansion of the American steel industry in the 19th and early 20th century.

He eventually sold his Carnegie Steel company in 1901 to JP Morgan for US$480 million (in the currency of the day). Carnegie also donated 90 per cent of his earnings to philanthropic causes by the time of his death in 1919.

Who’s the richest American Horror Story star? Net worths, ranked

8. Catherine the Great (1729-1796)

Estimated net worth today: US$1.5 trillion

Catherine the Great was the longest reigning female Russian monarch. Photo: Handout

The Russian monarch inherited and controlled a vast network of land, wealth and political power, after assuming the throne in 1762 – investments worth 5 per cent of Russian GDP, or the equivalent of US$1.5 trillion today, according to Luxuo.

Helen Mirren played Catherine the Great in HBO’s 2019 mini series. Photo: HBO

7. Augustus Caesar (63BC-14AD)

Estimated net worth today: US$4.6 trillion

Augustus Caesar was the first Roman emperor, and around a fifth of his empire’s wealth was in fact his. Photo: @romanhistory1/Twitter

The founder of the Roman empire needs no introduction as one of the greatest and most famous rulers in history.


Augustus Caesar’s empire produced around 25 to 30 per cent of the world’s global output, and around a fifth of that was his own personal wealth, according to Luxuo. That means he would have been worth around US$4.6 trillion today.

Christine Chiu or Anna Shay: who wore the best jewellery in Bling Empire 3?

6. Joseph Stalin (1878-1953)

Estimated net worth today: US$7.5 trillion

Joseph Stalin controlled Soviet assets worth around US$7.5 trillion in today’s money during his time as General Secretary. Photo: AFP says that it’s virtually impossible to separate Stalin’s wealth from the wealth of the Soviet Union, with economists claiming that his complete control of the USSR makes him one of the richest people to ever live.

Data from The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) indicates that in 1950, the USSR made up about 9.5 per cent of the global economic output (about US$7.5 trillion in today’s money).

Though Stalin didn’t technically “own” the money, he did have the power to “control the wealth of the country”, points out George O. Liber, a professor of history at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

5. Empress Wu (624-705)

Estimated net worth today: US$16 trillion

Empress Wu was considered one of China’s most ruthless emperors, though history has taught us that female rulers were often perceived as more harsh than their male counterparts. Photo: Handout

The first and only female emperor of China was intelligent, politically savvy – and famous for being ruthless when it came to bumping off her opponents. She ruled the country when the economy of China accounted for around 23 per cent of global GDP, which would be around US$16 trillion today.

Fan Bingbing as Empress Wu in the Empress of China TV series, which aired in 2015. Photo: Hunan TV
Despite her sometimes controversial methods of wielding power, she nevertheless built up the country’s wealth by trading tea and silk on the Silk Road, and oversaw the expansion of Imperial China into central Asia. Some call her the richest woman ever.

Inside Evan Spiegel and Miranda Kerr’s extravagant US$3.4 billion lifestyle

4. Akbar I (1542-1605)

Estimated net worth today: US$21 trillion

Akbar I lived far more extravagantly than European leaders with equivalent wealth at the time. Photo: @akbarthegreat03/Instagram

Abu’l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar, popularly known as Akbar the Great, was the third emperor to rule the Mughal empire.

Thanks to his ability to extract wealth from the population, claims that he ruled over an empire valued at 25 per cent of the global GDP. Comparable to the wealth of Elizabethan England at the time, the extravagance of Akbar I’s lifestyle nevertheless easily “surpassed that of the European society”, according to economic historian Angus Maddison.

3. Emperor Shenzong (1048-1085)

Estimated net worth today: US$30 trillion

The Song dynasty’s Emperor Shenzong was a savvy tax collector. Photo: @Peng201912/Twitter

The sixth emperor of China’s Song dynasty ruled over an immensely economically powerful empire worth 25 to 30 per cent of the world’s GDP at the time, according to Historians claim that the kingdom was light-years ahead of European governments when it came to effective tax collection, and its technological innovations and centralised form of governance also added to their wealth.

2. Genghis Khan (1162-1227)

Estimated net worth today: US$120 trillion

Mongol ruler Genghis Khan founded what would go on to become the largest contiguous empire in history. Photo: Wikipedia

It is believed that Genghis Khan was so powerful, and his Mongol empire so wide-reaching, that his DNA can be found in as many as 16 million men today, according to a 2003 scientific report.

And, having created the largest empire of all time – which covered most of China and Central Asia during his lifetime, and stretched as far as Poland and Vietnam afterward – The Richest estimates that he would have been worth about US$120 trillion in today’s money.

Who’s the richest member of the Red Hot Chili Peppers? Net worths, ranked

1. Mansa Musa (1280-1337)

Estimated net worth ... “Incomprehensible”

Mansa Musa is considered the richest man to have ever lived, according to historians. Photo: @Dr_TheHistories/Twitter
Coming in strong at No 1 is a name that you may not even recognise. Mansa Musa was the ruler of the Mali empire, which was immensely rich in land, salt and gold. Historians estimate the Mali Empire was at one point the largest gold producer in the world, meaning its ruler was in possession of “incomprehensible wealth”. While Celebrity Net Worth has estimated his wealth to have been the equivalent of around US$400 billion, historians believe it’s virtually impossible to come to a conclusion on the real number.

The African ruler was famous for making the most extravagant pilgrimage to Mecca of all time, with the BBC reporting that the king left Mali with about 60,000 men, from royal officials to camel drivers and slaves. He spent so much gold in Cairo during his three month stay there that he destabilised the local economy, affecting the price of gold in the region for the next 10 years!

Want more stories like this? Follow STYLE on Facebook, Instagram, YouTube and Twitter.
  • The likes of Elon Musk, Bill Gates and Gautam Adani may be worth billions, but their riches pale in comparison to the entrepreneurs, emperors and rulers of days past
  • Russia’s Catherine the Great and Joseph Stalin sat atop trillions, Mali’s Mansa Musa had insane amounts of gold, and Genghis Khan founded the world’s biggest empire – so who’s on top?