Japanese and South Korean car manufacturers are seen as the most reliable compared to European and American brands, says an independent report of over 500,000 vehicles.

Lexus, Toyota, Mazda, Subaru, Kia and Infiniti ranked the highest, according to an annual survey by Consumer Reports.

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Seven of the top 10 are either Japanese or South Korean, while 11 out of the bottom 12 are US brands.

Chinese-owned Swedish brand Volvo sits bottom of the list of 29 brands, followed by Cadillac and electric car manufacturer Tesla.

German manufacturer Audi breaks the Japanese and South Korean dominance ranked seventh ahead of the likes of BMW (eighth), Mini (ninth), Porsche (11th) and Volkswagen and Mercedes (tied 16th).

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Consumer Reports lacks data to rank Alfa Romeo, Fiat, Jaguar, Land Rover, Maserati, Mitsubishi, or Smart.

Supercar makers such as Ferrari, Lamborghini, McLaren and Bugatti are also not found in the report.

Based on the survey by Consumer Report members, the report lists specific problems faced by owners.

It also recommends that “consumers should avoid brand new or redesigned models and wait a year or two until the automaker has had the chance to work out the kinks and headaches that often arise.”

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