How the US and the West contributed to China addiction to dirty development
Los Angeles-based author Chip Jacobs became well known in China for his book, Smogtown, about pollution in the Californian metropolis, which he co-authored with William Kelly. The pair have now turned their attention to China's struggle with pollution in their book, The People's Republic of Chemicals. Jacobs spoke to LI JING
What are the root causes of China's pollution problems?
I think it's connected with China's tragic history - whether with the foreign occupation, the Opium Wars, the Japanese invasion or the cold war. All those historical events in some way encouraged China to continue using coal to fuel its industry, warm its homes and maintain development. For years, China was stuck in old-fashioned coal dependence.
In the 1990s, the US was eager to bring China into the world of nations. The cold war had ended and the Soviet Union had dissolved, but China remained a mystery. The US leadership of Bill Clinton and Al Gore wanted China to be involved in the global economy, but they made a fundamental mistake that led to a fight with Washington. Gore wanted any deal that brought China into the World Trade Organisation to include controls on China using dirty coal, which increased global warming and created air pollution. But he lost his fight.
China went on to become a gigantic export powerhouse. At that time the central leadership was looking for an edge, to make China competitive. It was a perfect storm for China to have a very dirty industrial revolution. The US had a very dirty industrial revolution at the dawn of the last century - and a lot of people died. It's as if the lessons were never remembered.
China was so hungry to pump up its economy and to export its products, which it produced at a cost that did not fully reflect their true environmental cost. Americans, through buying a huge amount of those goods, only encouraged China to manufacture in a dirty way. I realised that was the byproduct of globalisation - a story that no-one had really told.
Could tougher rules have avoided China's environmental crisis?
Yes, the US helped create this environmental Frankenstein. On the one hand, we brought China into the WTO - on the other, we feverishly bought its cheap, non-environmentally friendly products. When Barack Obama visited China last November he said that he wouldn't let his daughters breath Beijing's polluted air. I wish he had said that the US bore some of the blame here. I don't think he was telling the full story. Within a few years of joining the WTO, China's greenhouse gas emissions were exploding.
But didn't China willingly choose that path of development?
I think China's leadership faced a great dilemma. It had elevated between 300 to 400 million people out of poverty, but at the same time a respected study - [whose findings were released this year by Berkeley university] showed that that about 4,000 Chinese were dying every day from its air pollution. The Communist Party must have felt it had made a pact with the devil, because China doesn't have many energy resources other than coal .
Where I do think the Chinese government needs to change is how it disseminates information. Only recently did it officially acknowledge the existence of cancer villages [that have abnormally high rates of the disease, linked to pollution].
What I don't get about China is why such a powerful country cannot accept valid criticism. Whenever people demonstrate about a polluting factory, state censors block blogs, track down those writing them and crack down on electronic communication.
I think that creates a lot of resentment and suspicion [towards the government]. I just hope China's leadership will feel more confident to allow people to become informed, without worrying about whether it would cause social unrest.
Do you think mounting public pressure will force real change?
I believe China is getting on the right path. The leadership pledged big funds for a cleanup, even though China still lacks a national air quality plan that everybody can understand, or an air pollution inventory.
But things are getting better. Besides promises of more funds, and making firm plans such as peaking coal consumption in 2030, China's anti-corruption campaign has arrested "tigers and flies" in the energy sector. To me, it's the Communist Party's way of tackling the head of the problem, because some of the big state [energy] companies were blocking reform.
I do believe that the more China's becomes a middle-class society, the less its leadership can get away with stifling information. And I think they're realising that they can no longer play the same game - getting mad at people who are victims, or passing responsibility for problems to the lower-ranking officials.