Will latest UN sanctions have any effect on North Korea after 11 years of trying?
The new trade restrictions are considered the toughest yet, but can they really affect policy change in Pyongyang?
The United Nations Security Council passed a new resolution on Monday with fresh sanctions aimed at reining in North Korea’s nuclear weapons programme.
Under the sanctions – considered the toughest yet against Pyongyang – the annual export of oil and fuel products to the country would be cut from about 8.5 million barrels to two million.
The resolution came a week after the reclusive regime conducted its sixth and largest nuclear test, and after it has launched 13 ballistic missiles so far this year.
Sanctions against North Korea have so far done nothing to deter Pyongyang, which said ahead of the UN Security Council meeting that it would cause the US “the greatest pain and suffering it had ever gone through in its entire history”. Here we take a look back at the UN sanctions since 2006.
October 2006: North Korea conducts its first nuclear test, immediately prompting a UN resolution banning various products to the country and freezing the assets and travel of individuals involved in the nuclear programme.
May to June 2009: Pyongyang detonates an underground device in its second nuclear test and launches several short-range missiles. In response, the UN passes a resolution authorising nations to search North Korean ships and destroy any cargo that may be connected to the nuclear programme.
January 2013: After North Korea launches a satellite in mid-December, the UN passes another resolution adding to previous sanctions. It also clarifies that member states have the right to seize and destroy any cargo suspected of being related to North Korean military research and development.
March 2013: Pyongyang conducts its third nuclear test, resulting in a UN resolution to clamp down on money transfers and shut North Korea out of the international financial system.
March 2016: In reaction to North Korea’s fourth nuclear test in January and a long-range missile test in February, the UN passes a resolution banning all weapons trading and calling for all cargo going in and out of the nation to be inspected.
August 2016: North Korea claims to have launched a ballistic missile capable of hitting the United States. Three months later, the UN imposes a cap on coal exports to North Korea and bans the export of various other metals.
August 2017: The latest UN resolution, in response to a series of missile tests and belligerent threats about striking the US, sets limits on exports of crude oil and fuel products to North Korea and includes other measures such as bans on textile exports and hiring North Korean labourers.