ExplainerWeapons for Ukraine: Who has sent what?
- Allies have been arming Ukraine to help stymie Russia’s much larger and better-equipped military
- However Kyiv has complained that it is still outgunned and pleaded for more heavy weaponry
The United States has agreed to supply Ukraine with advanced rocket launch systems to try to turn the tide of the war in the eastern Donbas region, where the city of Severodonetsk looks poised to fall to Russian forces.
Despite multiple countries sending arms to Ukraine since Russia invaded on February 24, Kyiv has complained that it is still outgunned and pleaded for more heavy weapons.
Here is a look at the weaponry sent or promised so far. This is not an exhaustive list as some nations keep their donations secret.
The US said on Tuesday it had agreed to Kyiv’s request for Himars multiple-rocket launchers, which will allow Ukrainian forces to hit deeper behind Russian lines while staying out of range of Russian artillery.
The Himars, which will be limited in range by the US to prevent Ukrainian forces using them to strike targets inside Russia, are the centrepiece of a US$700 million package of weapons to be paid for from a US$40 billion fund for Ukraine approved by Congress last month.
The Biden administration has already sent US$4.5 billion in military aid since the war began.
The weapons pledged or sent include 72 155mm howitzers, 72 vehicles to tow them, 144,000 rounds of ammunition, and more than 120 “Phoenix Ghost” tactical drones recently developed by the US Air Force specifically to address Ukraine’s needs.
The US has also pledged helicopters, armoured personnel carriers, 1,400 Stinger anti-aircraft systems, 5,000 Javelin anti-tank missiles, several thousand rifles with ammunition and a range of other equipment.
Turkey’s Bayraktar TB2 combat drones have become famous the world over since the war began, with videos going viral of Ukrainian forces using them to destroy convoys of Russian armoured vehicles and artillery.
Ukraine also said it used a TB2 to distract the defences of the Russian warship Moskva before pounding it with missiles in mid-April, causing it to sink.
Before the invasion Kyiv had around 20 TB2s. In March, Kyiv said it had received more, without saying how many.
Britain said on May 20 it had committed £450 million (US$561 million) so far to supporting the Ukrainian military. The government said the aid included 120 armoured vehicles, over 5,800 anti-tank missiles, five air defence systems, over 1,000 rockets and 4.5 tonnes of explosives.
In early May, Prime Minister Boris Johnson also promised electronic warfare equipment, a counter-battery radar system, GPS jamming equipment and thousands of night-vision devices.
Britain says it has also trained more than 22,000 Ukrainian soldiers.
Canada has supplied Ukraine with C$262 million of military aid since February.
In late May, the federal government said it was sending 20,000 artillery shells, to go with the M777 howitzers it has already sent to boost Ukraine’s defences in the Donbas.
Ottawa has also sent Kyiv drone cameras, rifles, ammunition, high-resolution satellite imagery, rocket launchers, thousands of hand grenades and two tactical airlift aircraft.
Chancellor Olaf Scholz said Wednesday he would send Ukraine an air defence system capable of shielding a “large city” from Russian air raids.
Scholz said Germany would also send a tracking radar system capable of detecting enemy artillery fire.
His government has been accused of being slow to arm Kyiv.
In late April, Berlin broke with its policy of sending only defensive weapons and agreed to supply Ukraine with self-propelled howitzers and tanks.
Germany has been negotiating with countries in eastern and southern Europe on sending some of their Soviet-era equipment to Ukraine in return for newer German models.
In April, Spain shipped 200 tonnes of military equipment to Ukraine, including 30 trucks, several heavy transport vehicles and 10 small vehicles loaded with military material.
In mid-April the French government said it had delivered more than €100 million of military equipment to Ukraine.
A week later President Emmanuel Macron promised more aid, including Milan anti-tank missiles and Caesar self-propelled howitzers.
A Senate hearing this week confirmed that Paris has sent six howitzers and revealed it also sent Mistral anti-aircraft missiles.
Norway has sent 100 French-made Mistral anti-aircraft missiles to Ukraine as well as 4,000 M72 anti-tank weapons.
Sweden announced in late February it would send 10,000 single use anti-tank launchers along with demining equipment.
Finland, which like Sweden has applied for Nato membership since Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, announced in February it would send Kyiv 2,500 assault rifles, 150,000 rounds of ammunition and 1,500 single use anti-tank launchers. A month after the war began, Helsinki said it would send more weapons, without specifying what type.
Three days after the war started, Denmark said it would send 2,700 anti-tank launchers. On a visit to Kyiv in late, Prime Minister Mette Fredriksen announced another 600 million Danish kroner (US$88 million) for weapons. Washington says Denmark plans to send a Harpoon anti-ship missile system, which can target ships as far as 300km (187 miles) offshore.
Poland says it has sent 1.6 billion dollars’ worth of arms, including an unspecified number of tanks. Polish and US media have reported that Warsaw supplied over 200 tanks, which would make Ukraine’s second-biggest weapons supplier after the US.
Warsaw says it has also sent anti-tank missiles, mortars, ammunition and drones.
Slovakia has so far contributed military material worth 153 million euros and has reached a deal with Ukraine on the sale of at least eight howitzers.
Latvia has contributed military material worth more than €200 million, including ammunition, Stinger anti-aircraft missiles and their launch pads, unmanned aircraft and drones.
Lithuania said it has sent military aid to Ukraine worth “tens of millions” of euros, including Stinger anti-aircraft missiles, mortars, rifles, ammunition and other equipment. Lithuanians also crowdfunded over 5 million euros to buy Ukraine another Bayraktar drone.
Estonia has given €227.5 million of military aid, including Javelin anti-tank missiles, howitzers, anti-tank mines and anti-tank guns, and handguns along with ammunition.
Slovenia announced in late February it was sending Kalashnikov assault rifles and ammunition. Slovenia was also in discussions with Germany about sending Ukraine a large number of its Soviet-era tanks in return for German tanks and troop carriers but no deal has been announced as yet.
Bulgaria is not officially providing military equipment to Ukraine due to opposition from pro-Russian socialists.
The Czech Republic has provided military aid worth 3.5 billion koruna (US$152 million) and says it is planning further supplies worth up to 28 million euros. US Defence Secretary Lloyd Austin said the Czech government had supplied combat helicopters and rocket systems. Prague says Czech companies will also repair Ukrainian tanks.
Belgium says it has sent 5,000 automatic rifles and anti-tank weapons to Ukraine.
The Netherlands in late February promised the delivery of 200 Stinger missiles and in April said it would send a limited number of howitzers.
Under a deal announced by German Chancellor Olaf Scholz on May 31, Greece will send Ukraine some of its Soviet-era tanks in exchange for more modern vehicles from Berlin. Athens has also sent 400 Kalashnikovs, rocket launchers and ammunition.
Italy is keeping its arms deliveries to Ukraine secret.