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A US military map of Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom, a bombing campaign against the Taliban, in late 2001. File photo: Reuters

‘War is over’: key Afghanistan dates since 2001

  • Taliban declare the war in Afghanistan over after taking control of Kabul
  • How Afghanistan arrived at this place is a long and arduous journey

With the Taliban back in control of Afghanistan, here is a recap of landmark events in the war-torn country since the group’s first regime was toppled in the 2001 US-led invasion.

2001: September 11 and ‘war on terror’

US President George W Bush launches his “war on terror” in response to the September 11 attacks that killed around 3,000 people, with air strikes on Afghanistan on October 7, 2001.

The Taliban government had sheltered Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda movement, which masterminded the attacks.

In power since 1996, the Taliban are soon defeated and flee the Afghan capital Kabul on December 6.

Hamid Karzai is appointed to lead an interim government and Nato begins to deploy its International Security Assistance Force.

US bombings in the Tora Bora mountains in Afghanistan in December, 2001. File photo: Reuters

2004: First presidential election

Afghanistan’s first election under a new system is held on October 9, 2004 with an enthusiastic turnout of 70 per cent. Karzai wins 55 per cent of the vote.

The Taliban regroup in the south and east, as well as across the border in Pakistan, and launch an insurgency.

US Marine William Olas Bee has a close call after Taliban fighters opened fire near Garmser in Helmand in 2008. File photo: Reuters

2008-2011: US reinforcements

As attacks multiply, the US command in 2008 asks for more troops and the first reinforcements are sent.

Karzai is re-elected on August 20, 2009 in elections that are marred by massive fraud, low turnout and Taliban attacks.

In 2009, US President Barack Obama, who had campaigned on a pledge to end the Afghanistan war, doubles the number of US troops to 68,000. In 2010, it reaches around 100,000.

Osama bin Laden is killed on May 2, 2011 in a US special forces operation in Pakistan.

On June 22, Obama announces the beginning of a troop withdrawal, with the departure by mid-2012 of 33,000 soldiers.

On May 1, 2011, then US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, President Barack Obama and Vice-President Joe Biden, receive updates on the mission to kill Osama bin Laden. File photo: AP

2014: Nato exit

In June 2014, Ashraf Ghani is elected president but voting is marred by violence and a bitter dispute over claims of fraud.

In December, Nato ends its 13-year combat mission but a number of troops remain to train the Afghan military.

The following year, the Taliban make their greatest military advances since being ousted.

Islamic State also becomes active in the region. Bloody attacks multiply, notably in Kabul.

Ashraf Ghani voting in the 2014 presidential election. He fled Kabul on Sunday. File photo: Reuters

2020: US-Taliban deal, disputed election

Ghani is declared victorious for a second term on February 18, 2020, an announcement rejected by his rival and former minister Abdullah Abdullah, who vows to form his own parallel government.

On February 29, the United States and the Taliban sign a historic deal in Doha under which all foreign forces would leave Afghanistan by May 2021, provided the insurgents start talks with Kabul and adhere to other security guarantees.

A power-sharing deal ends the bitter Ghani-Abdullah feud in May. Abdullah takes the role of leading the peace negotiations.

Talks begin in September but violence surges and the Taliban are blamed for a wave of targeted killings.


US troops leave Afghanistan’s Bagram airbase without notifying new Afghan commander

US troops leave Afghanistan’s Bagram airbase without notifying new Afghan commander

May 2021: Foreign troops withdrawal

On May 1, 2021 the United States and Nato start withdrawing their 9,500 soldiers, of which 2,500 are American.

In May, the Americans withdraw from the Kandahar airbase.

On July 2, Bagram airbase – Afghanistan’s biggest, and the nerve centre of the US-led coalition’s operations – is handed over to Afghan forces.

President Joe Biden says that the US troop withdrawal will be completed by August 31, before the 20th anniversary of the September 11 attacks.

May-August 2021: Taliban blitz

The insurgents launch lightning attacks across Afghanistan, capturing vast stretches of the hinterland as the final foreign troops begin their withdrawal.

The Taliban capture their first provincial capital, Zaranj in the southwest, on August 6.

Other major cities fall within days, including Kandahar and Herat – Afghanistan’s second and third-biggest cities respectively.

Most of the north, west and south is under Taliban control by August 13.

The Pentagon says Kabul does not appear to face an “imminent threat”.

August 2021: Fall of Kabul

The insurgents fully encircle the capital on August 15 with the capture of Jalalabad in the east.

It leaves Kabul as the only city under government control.

Diplomatic missions scramble to evacuate officials and local staff who fear reprisals from the Taliban.

Ghani flees the country, reportedly to Tajikistan, and the Taliban enter Kabul, eventually taking position in the presidential palace.

In a statement, Ghani admits the insurgents have “won” and the Taliban declared the war in Afghanistan is over.

“Today is a great day for the Afghan people and the mujahideen. They have witnessed the fruits of their efforts and their sacrifices for 20 years,” Mohammad Naeem, the spokesman for the Taliban’s political office, told Al Jazeera TV.

“Thanks to God, the war is over in the country.”

Additional reporting by Tribune News Service and Reuters